8

 

Abstract

 

Book Haram figuratively implies that western for non-Islamic education is a sin, is a very controversial Nigeria militant group that seeks for the imposition of sharia law in the entire northern states of Nigeria. The hierarchical structure of the group is not presently well defined. The official name of the group id jamaiatu Ahlis sunna lidda

 

awai waljihad, which in Arabic committed to the propagation of the prophet‘steaching

 

and jhadliterallymeansthereforeAssociation― the g of sunn‘s for the propagation of I

 

(jihad) and Islamized northern stats of Nigeria and probably conquer the entire country through jihad. So far, the group has been waging the war successfully in it area of stronghold. Book Haram made its presence known in 2004, in Yobe states, and by 2011, it made its presence known to the global community by bombing the United Nations Headquarters in Abuja, especially in the last two years, it has willfully attacked hundreds of buildings and killing many innocent Nigerians. In spite of the calamity the group has caused the government seems

 

not to know how to wingsclip.In thisthe grou research work, therefore, effort will be made to philosophically and legally appraise the group activities

 

and its implications on Nigerian National integration. We will look at the socio-economic implication of the group in Nigeria economic development also the drive of the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria and possible suggest solutions that will assist in curtailing their activities in Nigeria


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Table of Contents

 

Title Page----------------------------------------------------

i

Approval Page-----------------------------------------------

ii

Dedication------------------------------------------------

iii-iv

Acknowledgement----------------------------------------

v-ix

Abstract-------------------------------------------------------

x

Table of Contents---------------------------------------

xi-xii

Chapter One: General Introduction

 

 

1.1  Background of the Study---------------------------

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem-------------------------

 

1.3  Objective of the Study-------------------------------

 

1.4  Literature Review ---------------------------------

 

1.5  Significance of the Study-------------------------

 

1.6  Theoretical Framework-----------------------------

 

1.7  Hypotheses------------------------------------------

 

1.8 Methods of Data collection and Analysis------------

1.9

 

1.9  Scope and Limitations of the Study-------------------

 

1.10    Operationalization of Concepts------------------


10

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter Two: the Driving Force of the Boko Haram

 

Insurgence

 

2.1  Historical Analysis of the Boko Haram Insurgence.

 

2.2  The Drive of Poverty.

 

2.3  The Drive of Unemployment

 

Chapter  Three:  Implication  of  the  Boko  Haram

 

Insurgence

 

3.1  Implication on Economic Development

 

3.2  Implication on National Integration

 

3.3               Implication  on  Nigeria‘s  Foreig

 

Chapter Four: Strategies for Addressing the Menace

 

of the Boko Haram Insurgence

 

4.1  The Strategy of Coercion

 

4.2  The Strategy of Legal Response

 

4.3. The Strategy of Dialogue and Negotiation

 

Chapter         Five:          Summary,         Conclusion         and

 

Recommendations


11

 

 

5.1    Summary----------------------------------

 

5.2    Conclusion--------------------------------

 

5.3.   Recommendations Bibliography----------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

Chapter One: General Introduction

 

1.1 Background of the Study

 

Nigeria as a nation-state is under a sever internal socio-economic and security threat. As a more general level, the threat has social, economic, political and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has

 

greatly affected the nation‘s stab to the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts,

 

poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage, and environmental degradation (Ilufoye, 2009).

 

Boko Haram insurgence becomes the major problem facing Nigerians in the recent time. These groups have perpetrated several bombing that have killed millions of


12

 

 

innocent citizens of this country Nigeria and also caused the destruction of both private and public properties worth of billion of naira. This derives from their bid to make people in the north east geo-political zone of Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code and western education.

 

The predominant threat and security challenges in the area are emendating from un-abating attacks on Nigerian citizens, individuals, public and governmental installations, kidnapping and destruction of properties. All these effect of Boko Haram activities are serious crime against the Nigeria state, which has threatened its national security and socio-economic activities. This has posed a great challenges to the ground strategy for national security of which the primary aim is ―to strengthen the federal republic of Nigeria to advance her interest and objectives, to contain instability, control


13

 

 

crime, quality of life of every citizens, improve the well fare and the eliminate-zau corruption‖2007:51)

 

Boko Haram activities, has destabilized socio-economic activities. Increased crime and destruction of both life and property of Nigerian citizens. This can be attested to by the mass movement of people living in northern part of the country most especially maiduguri, which is the capital of Borno State. This situation has

 

made it impossible for the rencitizensof Nigeria to carry on their legitimate businesses. It is

 

also scaring foreign investors out of the country. Students have been forced to flee their schools. The gravity of the crisis has made some government to vow never to allow Nigerians students from their state to go to the Northern part of Nigeria for anything. Boko Haram activities also effected the posting of students of southern and eastern extradition on national youth service corps (NYSC) to the north, to the extent that parents are


14

 

 

strongly resisting the posting of their children as copper to the north.

 

Boko Haram itself, is a fatal blow to the noble objective of the scheme as a unifying strategy, the unity of Nigerian is seriously threatened by Boko Haram fundamentalist sect and therefore, considered to be a major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigerian mostly on the part of socio-economic activities of the country.

 

 

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem

 

Boko Haram activities was described by us intelligence agents in November 20 group attacking Christians and local police stations with

 

 

matchet and poison tipped arrows in Nigeria‘s northeastern Borno state. According to him:

 

Boko Haram is a way of thinking, it is politically driven, they are loosely organized grassroots insurrection against not only the Abuja government but the traditional


15

 

 

Muslim establishment as well. (Campbell, 2011).

 

After nearly a decade of violence, Nigeria government still does not have an effective strategy for dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys on the disillusioned Muslims of the north, who are fed up with corruption. And have few economic opportunities, Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by two religious beliefs aside traditional religion. The northern half of the country is almost completely Muslim (50 per cent of the total Nigerians population) and the southern half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 per cent of the total Nigerians population). Originating in the Muslim dominated northern region of the country, the movement other rejected everything deemed western. The activities of these groups Boko Haram‖grew its ranks by taking advantages of the widespread anger in the north over the

 

country‘s                           gap.  In  the  north,  72  pe


16

 

 

live below the poverty line, compared to only 22 percent in the southern part Christopher (Bartolta, 2011)

 

The political goal of Boko Haram sect is to create an Islamic nation in the twelve northern states of Nigerians, eventually, spreading to the rest of the country. From its inception Boko Haram viewed Nigeria as a state or a country running by non-believers and made the government its main target, ever when the country had a Muslim president.

 

Therefore, this research work seeks to find the following:

 

1.   Is poverty inducing the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria?

 

2.     Does the Boko Haram‖surgenceinhave any socio-economic implication on Nigerians development?

 

3.   Is dialogue a desideration to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria?


17

 

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

 

The broad objectives of the study are to examine the activities of the Boko Haram and its socio- economic

 

implication  on   Nigeria‘s   development.

 

Haram terrorism in Nigeria as a case study. To achieve

 

 

 

 

 

this, specifically, this research work is designed to examine the following:

 

1.    To determine if poverty is inducing the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria

 

2.    To assess the socio-economic implication of Boko Haram insurgence on the nation.(Nigeria)

 

3.    To determine if dialogue is a desideration to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria

 

 

 

1.4      Literature Review

 

Literature review has to do with what other scholars

 

and authors have contributed to this study so far. The


18

 

 

term              ―terrorism‖  refers  to  the   sys

 

violence to communicate to political massage rather than defeat an opponent, military force. Thus, the targets of terrorism are symbolic and the victims of terrorism represent a wider audience. To achieve a maximum shock effective, terrorist violence is usually dramatic and provocative.

 

Typically, small number of extremists who otherwise lack the capacity to challenge those in power resort to terrorism. A defining characteristics of terrorism is that its users expects rewards that are of proportionate to both the resources. They posses and the risk they assume:

 

Terrorism is furthermore strategies that are not restricted to any particular ideology (smlter and Beltes, 2001).

 

According to Reich 1998, as a strategy of resistance to the modem state, terrorism emerged some half century


19

 

 

after the French revolution, when the term originated as a description of the state regime of terror. Russia revolutionaries and anarchist in French, Spain, Italy and German established terrorism as a central mechanism in attempt to over throw the established regimes, most of which were autocratic in the submission of Lain mclean terrorism as a pejorative term, also applies to the deeds of government of sovereign state. According to Lain

 

Mclean, an term ―state sponsored terroris used to described the conduct of various government

 

indirectly organizing or indirectly assisting perpetration of violence acts in other state. Lain Mclean argued that in recent time, many countries of divergent ideological persuasion have engaged in this kind of activities while in some cases strictly condemning others forms practices (Lain Mclean, 1996). Meanwhile, terrorism is a contested concept that resist precise definition. Since the term is both elastic and emotionally powerful, it lend itself to


20

 

 

subjective interpretation driven by political rather than analytical purposes, it is also difficult to distinguish terrorism from other forms of violence. Such as, for example querilla warfare or criminal activities, if terrorism is defined in terms of the intension behind the action, is it possible to know those intension? What is the relationship between religion and terrorism, be non-combatants for example?. If so are attacks on security target act of terrorism?

 

Though, there is no official definition of terrorism agreed on through out the world, and definitions tend to rely heavily on who is doing the definition and for what purpose. Some definition focus on terrorist tactics to defined the term, while others focus on the actor. Ethnic

 

separatist,                                violence  in Leaguethe of 1930‘s

 

Nations formed after world war 1 to encourage world stability and peace to defined terrorism for the first time as:


21

 

 

All criminal acts directed against a state and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the mind of particular persons or group of persons or the general public. (League of Nation convection definition of terrorism, 1937).

 

Therefore, bringing to our understanding that Boko

 

Haram  sect  is  pre-occupied  with  carrying  out  various

 

degree  of  attacks  on  civilians,  usually  used  by  the

 

powerless against powerful;

 

International terrorism interludes terrorists attacking a foreign targets other than within own country or abroad (Rurke 2008:316).

 

This means that September 11, 2011 attack was an

 

international terrorism while one of the attacks by the

 

Boko Haram sect such as the police stations attacks is a

 

domestic  terrorism. But it becomes  complicated  if the

 

Boko  Haram  sect  is  still  a  domestic  terrorism  group

 

despites it seeming connection with other international

 

sect such as Hamas and Alqueda.


22

 

 

According  to  Claver  (2002:302),  he  stated  that

 

terrorism is the use of force to impact fear with a view to

 

bring                   about    political,    economic

 

Recently, terrorism has been endemic in all parts of the

 

countries in the world. Cleavert went on to explain that:

 

It is true, as is often repeated that man‘s terroristanotheris anis extreme example of an essential contested concept and its preacher‘s finds to polarize at extent that

 

renders it extremely difficult to return to normal politics (Claver, 2002:303).

 

Drawing from the above  assertion, indicated  how

 

terrorism can lead to socio-economic underdevelopment

 

of  a  country,  though  he  was  not  elaborate,  but  it  is

 

worthy  to  appreciate  his  view  that  the  practice  of

 

terrorism group makes the society difficult to return to

 

normal politics. This can be deduced from the activities

 

of the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria which has been


23

 

 

destabilizing  socio-economic  activities  in  the  northern

 

part of the country.

 

Also terrorism are viewed from a complete different

 

angel by many authors among also includes Heywood. In

 

his  own  view,  he  explained  three  (3)  dimensions  of

 

terrorism. According to him:

 

The term is highly controversial first the distinction or warfare is burred by the fact that the later may also aim to stake fear in to wider population, secondly, as the term is highly prerogative, it stands to be

 

used selectively (one pers terrorist is anotherfreedom person‘s fighter) thirdly, although terrorism

 

is usually conceived as an anti-governmental activities, government can employ terror against their own or other population, as in the case of terrorism in the state (Heywood, 2007:382)

 

This assertion of Heywood brings to out mind that

 

interregional terrorism can take different and many forms

 

whatever  means  these  activities  are  perpetrated,  the

 

contention of  this research is  that  it directly leads  to


24

 

 

underdevelopment. This is especially in the areas of these

 

states still batting with the problem of development.

 

Remarkable a very distant variant of terrorism is

 

that of Mbah (2008:139) stated that:

 

Terrorism as a deialedt necessity as well as the product of globalization and the expression of it, and because this relations is a class relation, the relevant division is an antagonistic one, which creates contradictory class intersection.

 

This is a very sharp contribution to the issue  of

 

terrorism. But the fact is still that none of this authors

 

have been able to point out or suggest that terrorism

 

either domestic or international, direct or indirectly lead

 

to underdevelopment:

 

Goldia et al 92005:201) stated that:

 

Government appeals hind to portray terrorism simply as criminal violence assaults on society that can not be justified as serving a political cause.


25

 

 

Terrorism, typically, it has a political objective that makes it a pervasive form of political conflict partied by indefinable modes of political leadership and participation. The above assertion tries to example the structures of the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria. This is because, if it is believed that the group shuns the politics of the northern part of Nigeria and agitating for imposition of sharia law. Hence, while this version partly discuss the common modes of terrorist operation that occurs in democratic politics, we should be aware of the violence that can occur when democratic system breaks down

 


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