The impact of Radio Delta Warri, on the reduction of infant mortality. A study of Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State is designed for the betterment of the life of children between the ages of 1_4years. This is to help the people of the people of Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, to know the importance of Radio Delta Warri, by following their programmers. By this they will know the causes of their problems and know how to avoid these problems or even handle such problems. Survey method was used. Questionnaire was my instrument for data collection. Findings shows that Radio Delta has designed educational programmes that will educate the people on health issues, how to improve their standard of living health wise, how to avoid diseases and sicknesses that could lead to the death of their young children and also it was discovered that these people do not visit the hospital frequently. Therefore, I, recommend that efforts should be made to introduce public health enlightenment programmes to educate parents, guardians and caregivers in order to reduce infant mortality. Therefore, the effective use of Radio Delta Warri, through articulated programmes will positively make impact on the reduction of infant mortality.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over the years, millions of children die every day due to one illness or the other and even lack of care, resulting to a high percentage of infant mortality. With this, the child is definitely at risk.
Infant, according to United Nations of Children’s Fund (UNICEF), in progress report (1997) Nigerian children is a child between 1 – 4 years of age. Mortality according to E. Hendrick, in educational psychology, is a situation where by there is a rapid death in the society, when the percentage of death is high. Therefore, infant mortality is a situation where by a number of children between 1– 4 years of age die as a result of disaster or diseases such as diarrhea, malaria, sickle cell anemia, vaccine prevention diseases (VPD), pneumonia, measles, whooping cough etc.
Economic inequality has severe effect on health, especially for children. One fifth of Nigerian children die before the age of five primarily from treatable diseases. One half of infant are immunized against measles, and malnutrition affects more than 40 percent of the children under the age of five. Only 20 percent of rural Nigerians and 52 percent of urban Nigerians have access to safe water. One third have no access to health care simply because they live too far from clinics or other treatment centers. Many others cannot afford the fees charged by clinics. The result has been an infant mortality rate of 96 per 100 live births and a life expectancy of 47 years malaria is the leading cause of death and is likely to remain so.
This is the probability of death in the first year of life, usually started as a number 7,000 births many less developed countries have infant mortality rate above 100 per 1000 that is more than 10 percent of the children die in their first year. In countries with effective health and educational systems, infant mortality rate are about 15 per 1,000 on even lower.
Efforts are being made to introduce public health enlightenment programmer on radio, television, newspaper columns and magazines to educate people on causes of many diseases in other to reduce infant mortality. The effective use of the mass media through articulated programmer positively make impact in the reduction of infant mortality.
However, Radio Delta, Warri, which came into being when the defunct Bendel State was splited into Delta and Edo on August 27, 1991, by the former Military Head of State, Gen, Ibrahim Badamessi Babaginda. The first military administration of the state was captain, Luke Ochulon, (retired), and by venture of the state creation, Delta Broadcasting Service Warri, emerged from the former Bendel Broadcasting Service, Benin City, which later became Edo Broadcasting Service (EBS).
On Tuesday 30th, June 1992, gave rise to the first functional Radio Delta, Warri and Delta Television. The emergence of the administration of Chief James Onaefe Ibori, brought a comprehensive restructuring of (DBS). With this restructuring came two autonomous broadcasting outfits for the state. DBS Warri and DBS Asaba. DBS, Warri, became independent from Asaba on July 2001. DBS Warri is made up of five departments and three units.
In relation to this Radio Delta, Warri have decided to use its programmes and activities to enlighten the people of Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta state. Due to the fact that the rate of infant mortality is high there.
Isoko North LGA, was born in the year 1991 by IBB administration. Isoko North LGA comprises ten towns which include Iyede, Emeuor, Ofagbe, Owhe, Ozoro, Elu, Anadhe, Ourole, Okpe and Oyede. There they have six traditional rulers and four Odiologbo. It has the population of about seventy thousand people. Isoko North is one of the oil rich LGA in Delta State with rich culture, it has contributed so much to the growth of the country. It has one higher institution at Ozoro. Their main occupation is farming.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
In developing countries large number of infant die due to certain preventable diseases such as diarrhea, malaria, acute respiratory infection (API), Vaccine preventable disease (VPD), sickle cell anemia (SCA), etc.
In developed countries two thirds infant death occurring in the first seven days of life and are mainly due to low birth weight, congenital malformation and intrauterine anoxia due to toxemie. In developing countries where the mortality rate is high, about two third of the death occur during the post-natal period and these are mainly due to infections, infestations, malnutrition, lack of adequate health service, lack of care, Ignorance, illiteracy poverty, other environmental factors. Rate of infant mortality in developing countries is about three to ten time as high in developed counties.
Ignorance as the ease maybe, has led to a high percentage of infant mortality. Many people are not aware of the programmes that are introduced in the media which helps them adopt measures avoid contact with any of the deadly diseases that would lead to infant mortality. In some cases, the high price of the medium to get the information discourages people from buying. Most of their income is not enough to purchase any medium to receive information and as a result, people tend to ignore the causes of infant mortality which can really lead to an increase.
Illiteracy can also results to the increase of infant mortality, because when people are not educated enough to understand the language, the information that is being passed, they might not pay attention to any language they would not understand to communicate effectively especially those in the rural areas, selection of the best medium and language is needed.
High incidence of infant mortality is as a result of poor caring of these children by parents, caregivers, and guardians. It is assumed that a large proportion of children born a live would die in childhood and therefore, parents feel it’s necessary to have as many children as they could in the hope that some at list would survive. So few parents pay attention and care for their children.
Only few parent pay attention to the information passed to them on childhood diseases because they regard the childhood as a life so in secured that the child is not really a person, but a sort of extra uterine fetus.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Effects in encouraging the effective use of mass media to reduce infant mortality is certainly very vital in our society today.
Infant mortality is certainly doing away with most of the children we leave with. Since the media has turned the world into a global village, there is need to use radio in other to educate the society on the causes and how to prevent infant mortality.
The efforts of educating the society through the mass media to help them make the changes necessary in reducing infant mortality, improving life style, including acquiring new skills and ideas. The different organizations use radio and video production, soap opera and street theater, leaflets, posters, and public forums to help spread news and information about children’s health, welfare and rights.
Also to identify the causes and how to prevent infant mortality, certain programmer can be introduced such as discussions, documentary, news and feature articles in radio in other to emphasizes on the serious effect and harm infant mortality is having in our society.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Through the use of mass media the measures to prevent and reduces infant mortality can known to the people in order to have healthy children. It is a simple fact no community has any survival value except in its children.
Ensuring the rate of education through the mass media is s matter of mortality, justice and economic sense. There is an unmistakable correlation between education and mortality rates, especially infant mortality. It is necessary to consider the influence of the environment in choosing the forms of media that would be applicable to a particular situation.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Under research question we will pose imaginary questions concerning the issues of media influence in the reduction of infant mortality so as to help carry out this research work effectively.
1. Does the increase of infant mortality affect the Isoko people of Delta State? (As a result of lack of adequate information in child health care?)
2. Does the people’s poor attitude to child caring result to high incidence of infant mortality for the isoko people of Delta State?
3. Is the absence of hospital facilities at Isoko area of Delta State a factor that contributes to infant mortality in the area?
4. Could the low literacy level of the people of Isoko North LGA of Delta State be attributed to the high incidence of infant mortality?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: The increase of infant mortality affects the Isoko people of Delta state. (as a result of lack of adequate information in child health care)
H0: The increase of infant mortality does not affect the Isoko people of Delta State. (as a result of lack of adequate information in child health care).
H2: The people’s poor attitude to child caring result to high incidence of infant mortality for the Isoko people of Delta State.
H0: the people’s poor attitude to child caring does not result to high incidence of infant mortality for the Isoko people of Delta State
H3: The mere absence of hospital facilities at Isoko area of Delta State a factor that contribute to infant mortality of the area
H0: the mere absence of hospital facilities at Isoko area of Delta State is not a factor to infant mortality of the area
H4: The low literacy level of the people of Isoko North LGA of Delta State is attributed to the high incidence of infant mortality
H0: The low literacy level of the people of Isoko North LGA of Delta State is not attributed to the high incidence of infant mortality
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Infant mortality is a situation whereby a number of children between 1 – 4 years of age die as a result of disease or disasters such as diarrhea, malaria, sickle cell anemia, vaccine prevention diseases (VPC), whoopee cough etc.
Over 12 million children in developing world die each year from largely preventable causes. Over one million children die each year in Nigeria and other countries, resulting to a high percentage of infant mortality.
Infant is a child between 1 – 4 years of age. Mortality is a situation where by there is rapid death in the society, when the percentage of death is high.
Government and non-governmental organization such as United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Progress of Nigerian Children (PONC), Progress of Nations (PON), the Federation of Museum Women’s Association in Nigeria (FOMWAN), World Health Organization (WHO), and other several developmental bodies are doing their best in introducing educative and informative health programmer in the different medium.
When people make use of the information passed on to them on the diseases. That lead to infant mortality and ways to prevent them, it help to reduce the alarming rate of infant mortality. For example (UNICEF) is working in collaboration with state radio and television houses in introducing programmer, these types of enlightenment programmer on advertisement are on
1. Better holding and standards of living
3. Anti-biotic and chemotherapeutic agents
4. Prevention of cross-infection
5. Health education
6. Intravenous therapy
7. Appointment of pediatricians and post-metal speak list
They also contribute to developing a sense of ownership of the mass media by the people, so that reliable information on how to take good care of themselves and their children to reduce or prevent any disease that may cause infant mortality.
Measures and low-cost therapies through effective use of mass media are now saving the lives of millions of children. Therefore special attention must be paid to enhance effective use of mass media for the survival, development and protection of the children, in order to have healthy future leaders.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
Based on the observation of the percentage of infant mortality in Delta State at large. It is proper to enlighten the public through mass media on the possible ways to take care of their children from these preventable diseases.
This study assumes that Deltans have expressed series of opinions on the reduction of infant mortality. In other words, Deltans are supported to change their carefree attitude towards all that leads to infant mortality. This means that Radio Delta, Warri has gone a long way in trying to reduce infant mortality.
1.9 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The people of this study are limited to the influence of Radio Delta, Warri, On the reduction of infant mortality in Delta State. It is equally limited to the people of Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State.
Therefore, it is proper for the people of Isoko North LGA to be enlightened on the causes, dangers and prevention of these deadly diseases that are affecting the children and denying these children their right to live.
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