ABSTRACT

 

 

Over the years, Nigeria was experienced series of attacks, agitations, restiveness and blests ranging from diverse regions and localities. References are; hostage thing in the south-south region, the Niger Delta militancy crisis, the Boko Haram crisis in Northern Nigeria (which is the case study of this research work) etc. most restiveness of youths has often been done under the puise of a ring or body, this makes their operational activities fast and broader. All these group exist in the diverse

 

regions of the country, and this includes. popularly known as the „Oduduwa p called the Afenifere group. We can a known as the „movement for the actua state of biafra”,-east regionin.theInthe south-

 

 

 

south, we can find „MEND‟ known as” emancipation of Niger Delta”, while siege of the Northern part of the country to mention a

 

 

few.

 

 

Despite the fact that June 10,2000 marked 50 years of oil exploration and production, and over $400billion


 

accrued to the Nigerian state in terms of revenue, Nigeria is still referred to as one of the poorest countries in the world. This often makes us to wonder how much of this revenue actually found its way into the region where this oil is produced as the areas of investment in infrastructure or the development of human capital such economic growth is yet to translate to economic development and an appreciable increase in the standard of living of the Nigerian masses. Notably, the economic, social and cultural rights of the people in the Niger-Delta which is the main oil producing region in the country continues to be unfulfilled, therefore, increasing and escalating the level of frustration and tension both within and between communities. This increasing marginalization environmental degradation, discontentment with the multinational companies, pervasive poverty, perceived insensitivity on the part of the state and failure of the state to ameliorate the sufferings of the people, have pushed or rather forced the inhabitants of the region, specifically the youths to the edge, hence: frustration aggression emerged. These amongst other perceived


 

injustice such as low earnings, have made youths to become very hostile and violent, therefore creating an atmosphere of fear, chaos and restiveness. This drift to violence has unleashed a monster that is now a predator to everyone irrespective of personality. The attacks are so indiscriminate that even babies, the aged, oil companies and asset pipelines are frequently targeted for attacks and vandalization.

 

Having established a relationship between poverty and youth restiveness, we shall now take a look at the Boko Haram crisis for a comprehensive understanding of the research work. Boko Haram as the name connotes, does not have one particular meanings, it means different this (to different people though it is a religious cum political sect that aims at imposing sharia law in Nigeria.

 

Most people though believe that the means that western education is evil or a sin

 

Since its formation in 2002 in Maiduguri by the leader of the sect; Mohammed Yusuf, Boko Haram has been a thorn in the flesh of the Nigerian masses particularly in the Northern part of the country, it has also


 

made the Nigerian security agencies restless and vulnerable, particularly the police force, this, some people believe is because of the murder of the leader of the sect; Mohammed Yusuf who had been in police custody, thus, the birth of jungle justice.

 

To this end, this research no doubt, will critically analyze, study, explain and research on the three concepts, i.e. poverty, youth restiveness and Boko Haram in order to create a better understanding in the minds of

 

this reader on how poverty can………… l restiveness of youth in Nigeria, using the Boko Haram sect

 

as a case study. Finally, this research work contemporaneous and timely, hence it will contribute to executing knowledge and also help in increasing the frontiers of knowledge.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

 

Approval page

 

Dedication

 

Acknowledgement

 

Abstract

 

Chapter one: introduction

 

1.1      Background of the study

 

1.2      Statement of the problem

 

1.3      Objective of the study

 

1.4      Significance of the study

 

1.5      Literature review

 

1.6      Theoretical framework

 

1.7      Hypothesis

 

1.8      Methods of data collection and analysis

 

1.9      Scope and limitations of study

 

1.10  Definition of terms

 

 

Chapter two: background to poverty and youth restiveness in Nigeria

 

2.1      The post independence era

 

2.2      The military era


2.3  The post military era

 

Chapter three: the implications of the Boko Haram crisis

 

on  Nigeria‟s  corporate  existence

 

3.1      The implication on national integration

 

3.2      The implication on economic development

 

3.3      The  implication  on  Nigeria‟s  fore

 

Chapter four: strategies to manage the Boko Haram crisis.

 

4.1      The military approach

 

4.2      The legal option

 

4.3      The dialogue option

 

Chapter five: summary, conclusion and recommendation

 

5.1      Summary

 

5.2      Conclusion

 

5.3      Recommendation


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

Over  the  years,  Nigeria  has  experienced  series  of

 

 

attacks and blests in most parts of the country. The violent agitations by militants in t

 

So many splinter groups hide under this body to carry out their nefarious acts of rebellion against the Nigerian state to express their grievances over the degradations of their environment through the operation of the multinational oil companies.

 

Similar groups exist in other parts of the country and

 

 

they include; the “oduduwa people co is located in the south-west. They are often called the

 

Afeinifere group. There exists also the “movement for th actualization of sovereign state- of East while the „Boko Haram” uses the country as their operational base.

 

 

 

This research study will critically scrutinize and evaluate the activities of the latter amongst the afore mentioned political and religious sects, because that is the thrust of this research. It can be deduced that poverty


and youth restiveness are instrumental to the incessant

 

crisis  that  has  bedeviled  our  beloved  country   „Nigeria‟

 

People are said to be poor when they experience lack of

 

 

sufficient income to purchase material needs which often excludes individuals from partaking in generally accepted activities of daily life in the society at large. According to

 

ALI MASRUI in his „paradox of retardat the poorest of the regions of the world but it is the most

 

retarded. He argued that Africans are richly endowed and as such, they have no reason to be poor.

 

Despite the fact that June 10,2006 marked 50 years of oil exploration and production, and over $400billion accrued to the Nigerian state in terms of revenue, Nigeria is still referred to as one of the poorest countries in the world. This often makes one to wonder how much of this revenue actually found its way into the region where this oil is produced in the way of investment in infrastructure or the development of human capital. Such economic growth is yet to be translated to economic development and an appreciable increase in the standard of living of the Nigerian masses. The economic, social and cultural


 

rights of the people in the Niger Delta which is the main oil producing region in the country, continous to be unrealized thereby increasing and escalating the level of frustration and tension both within and between communities. This increasing marginalization, environmental degradation and the attendant with the multinational oil companies, preserve poverty, perceived insensitivity on the part of the state and failure of the state to ameliorate the sufferings of the people, have pushed or rather forced the inhabitants of the region specifically the youths to the edge.

 

These amongst other perceived injustice have made the youths to become very hostile and restless therefore creating an atmosphere of fear, chaos and tension. This drift to violence has unleashed a monster that is now a nuisance to everyone irrespective of personality. The attack are so indiscriminate that even babies, the aged, oil companies and asset to pipelines are frequently targeted for attacks and sabotage.

 

Having established a relationship between poverty and youth restiveness, we shall now take a look at the


 

Boko Haram crisis for a comprehensive understanding of the research study. Boko Haram as the name denotes, does not have one particular meaning. The name more or less connotes different meanings to different people. The group is a Nigerian Islamic group that seeks the imposition of Shariah group belief (Shariah law) throughout the whole of Nigeria. Figuratively, members of

 

this  group   believe   that   “western   educ

 

 

Presently, the group has an undefined structure and chain of command. It is of a paramount importance to note that

 

the official name of the group is „ Lidda‟awati-J had‟,Wal whichor rathermeansis tantamount to “people committed to the prophet‟s teaching and Jihad.

 

 

 

Since its formation in 2002 in Maiduguri by the leader of the group Mohammed Yusuf, the Boko Haram

 

has been a thorn the flesh ofs, Niger precisely the police force, over its opposition to western

 

education that it believes is a sin. In the year 2004, the Islamic fundamentalists group relocated its base to

 

Ranamma,                  Yobe   state.   The   new   locat


 

Afghanistan”, and fromroup setthereabout the attacking and leaving members of the Nigerian police

 

lifeless.

 

In and interview with BBC in the year 2004, Yusuf

 

 

the leader of the group was quoted as saying that “ war that is yet to start would continue poor a very long

 

time. Five years later i.e. in the year 2009, Yusuf was killed under the police custody in a violent clash between the Boko Haram and the security forces. Nevertheless, his demise did not quell the activities of the group he founded, it rather made them grow more in aggression.

 

Amongst the various crisis due to bombings carried out by Boko Haram are;

 

The Nigeria sectarian violence in the year 2009.

 

The Bauchi prison break 1st Abuja – 2nd Abuja the northern Nigeria bombings in the year 2011.

 

The attack on the police headquarters on June 16, 2011.

 

The  attack  on  the  ………………….ChurchMadala

 

(St Theresa) on the 25th of December 2011 just to mention but a few.


 

In conclusion, at this juncture, this research work will critically analyze the three concepts i.e. poverty, youth restiveness and Boko Haram in order to create a better understanding in the minds of the readers and more so to contribute to existing knowledge of literature.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

It is no longer news that the activities of the Boko

 

 

Haram and other similar politically religious sects have often led to loss of property, lives and even the breakdown of law and order, peace and security in the Nigerian society at large. From the foregoing, it has been observed that a lot of attacks have been made on so many states which includes even the state capital (F.C.I)

 

What puzzles most observers is that most of these attacks appears not be executed by suicide bombers, yet the culprits often get away unharmed. This leaves a big question mark in our security agencies as regards their duty in the protection of lives and properties, and the procurement of weapons of mass destruction to combat this menace which is eating deep into the Nigerian society today.


 

Opinions are however divided over the propelling force of this group, for instance while some argue fact. It is in a bid to eradicate these incessant chaos and destruction which has often led to loss of assets, that we pose a few research questions in a view of obtaining reasonable and positive answers. Thus:

 

i.            What is the relationship between poverty and youth restiveness in Nigeria.

 

ii.           Does the Boko Haram crisis pose a threat development and Nigeria‟s corpor

 

Is military option capable of lacking the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria? End of Preview....

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