ABSTRACT

 

 

Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs.

 

Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of

 

5


 

Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title  page……………………………………………

 

i

 

Certification……………………………….

 

ii

 

Dedication…………………………………………

 

iii

 

Acknowledgement…………………………….

 

iv

 

Abstract……………………………………………....…

 

v

 

Table  of  Content……………………………………

 

vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1  Introduction  ……………………………………

 

1

 

 

6


1.2  Crateva  adansonii  as…….a plant..……

 

4

 

1.3  Research  aim  and  objectives…..……………

 

7

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.0  Definition  of  Inflammation……………

 

8

 

2.1  Characteristics  of  Inflammation

 

8

 

2.2  Classes  of  Inflammation……………………

 

9

 

2.3  Types  of  Inflammation…………………………

 

10

 

2.4  Chemical  mediators  of  Inflammat

 

13

 

2.4.0 Properties of  Mediators………………………..

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

7


2.4.1  Histamine…………………………………………

 

18

 

2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy  tryptamine)…………

 

21

 

2.4.3  Cytokines………………………..…………………

 

24

 

2.4.4  Arachidonic  acid……………………………………

 

30

 

2.4.5  Platelet  Activating  Factor  (P

 

34

 

2.4.6  Free  Radicals…………………………………….

 

36

 

2.4.6.1  Nitric  Oxide  (NO)…………………………

 

37

 

2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived  free  radicals………………

 

40

 

2.4.7.0  Complement  system…………………………

 

41

 

 

 

 

 

 

8


2.4.7.1  The clotting system/Coagulation system.

 

45

 

2.4.7.2                           The  Kinin…………………….System………

 

48

 

2.4.7.3  The  fibrinolytic  system…………

 

50

 

2.5.0      Anti-Inflammatory  agents…………………..

 

53

 

2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)

 

53

 

2.5.1.0  Mechanism  of  Action  of  NSAI

 

55

 

2.5.2      Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs………..

 

58

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

 

3.1  Materials………………………………………………

 

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

9


3.1.1  Equipment/Apparatus  used……………

 

60

 

3.1.2  Chemical,  Solvents  and  Reagen

 

61

 

3.1.3  Animals…………………………………………………..

 

62

 

3.2  Methodology……………………………………………….

 

63

 

3.2.1  Collection  and  preparation  of  Pl

 

63

 

3.2.2  Extraction………………………………………………...

 

63

 

3.3  Fractionation………………………………………………

 

64

 

3.3.1  Gel  Column  Chromatography…………………

 

64

 

3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups

 

in the  extract…………………………………………….

 

65

 

3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical

 

 

 

10


analysis…………………………………………………….

 

65

 

3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis

 

of  the  Extract…………………………………………….

 

66

 

3.5              Thin  Layer  Chromatography………………………

 

71

 

3.6  Anti-inflammatory  activity  test.  ……………

 

72

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

Result…………………………………………………………….

 

75

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

Discussion………………………………………………………

 

79

 

Conclusion………………………………………………………

 

81

 

References……………………………………………………….

 

82

 

Appendixes…………………………………………

 

87

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVES

 

 

Inflammation is one of body’s natur itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to

 

infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the

 

immune system begins attacking the eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).

 

Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is allowed to continue unchecked it may results in neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids.

 

 

12


 

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are usually indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. NSAIDS work by reducing the production of prostaglandins (Bayness & Marek, 2005). Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote inflammation, pain and fever. The enzymes that produce prostaglandins are phospholipaseA2, PGH2synthase and Cyclooxygenase (Cox). There are two types of COX enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). NSAIDS reduce the production of prostaglandin by inhibiting COX enzymes resultant effect is that, therefore, inflammation, pain and fever are reduced. Some herbs and plants possess anti-inflammatory and they include:

 

S/No

Common

Botanical

 

 

Name

Name

 

 

 

 

 

1

Andiroba oil

Carapa

It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids

 

 

guianensis

that  promote  skin  healing  from

 

 

 

cuts and may slow growth of skin

 

 

 

cells in psoriasis and age spots.

 

 

 

It relieves pain and swelling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13


2

Alfalfa

Medicago

It  serves  as  an  oxidant  in  the

 

 

sativa L.

blood stream. They are staple of

 

 

 

salads and contain nutrient, the

 

 

 

leaves  hold  the  best  healing

 

 

 

potential

 

and

contain

 

 

 

phytoestrogens

that

could

be

 

 

 

beneficial

in

menopausal

and

 

 

 

breast feeding women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Aloe Vera Gel

Aloe vera

The leaf juices of the aloe plant

 

 

 

have

important

medicinal  uses.

 

 

 

It  stimulates

collagen

synthesis

 

 

 

and  skin  regeneration  after  a

 

 

 

burn; it helps heal acne, improve

 

 

 

the  appearance of  wrinkles  and

 

 

 

hydrate damaged skin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Apple

Malus

Other names include apple cider

 

 

domestica

vinegar, wine vinegar. The best

 

 

 

of the medicinal compounds are

 

 

 

contained  in  the  apple  peel.  It

 

 

 

helps in relieving arthritis, apple

 

 

 

contains malic and tartaric acids,

 

 

 

salts

of

potassium,

sodium,

 

 

 

magnesium and iron.

 

 

Copyright © 2005-2013

 

Annie’s  Remedy  (Anniesremedy.c

 

Crateva adansonii belonging to the family Capparacea

 

and phylum Magnoliophyta is small tree of forest and

 

 

14


 

savanna woodland, often on river-banks, widely distributed in Nigeria and across Africa. The leaves are applied externally to relieve pain in joint, the fresh juice of leaves is used for the relief of ear-ache, eye infection and anodyne in toothache. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism, itch, epilepsy and asthma (Sivarajan & Balachandran, 1994).

 

1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant.

 

 

The flowering tree Crateva adansonii is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant. The tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan, Australia, much of south East Asia and several south pacific Islands. It grows in forest and savanna woodland, often on river-banks from Senegal to N Nigeria, and across Africa to Zaire, Tanganyika and Madagascar. The plants common name is amakarode in Igbo, In Yoruba, it is egun-orun and in Hausa, it is ungududu. The tree

 

 

 

 

15


 

attains approximately 15m height. The trunk is irregular, seldom straight, but is worthy of cultivation as an ornamental for its dense masses of white flowers borne at the ends of all the shoots. In the bush, owing to grass burning which it survives and repeated stripping of its leaves, the tree is often stunted. The wood is soft and yellow and strong-smelling when cut. The leaves are however eaten in soups or mixed with cereals. They are

 

boiled and added to mixture called containing a paste of locust beans, Parkia Spp. (Leguminosae Mimisoideae). The Yoruba consumes the

 

leaves as a potherb.

 

 

In upper volt they are the ingredient of sauces. To some people the leaves are taken only in time of dearth and they are sold in northern markets. The bark is widely used for stomach-troubles in Nigeria. In Jebel Marra a bark-paste is used as a poultice on swellings.

 

Crateva adansonii is a decidious plant with three-palmate leaves. The leaves are arranged opposite one

 

16


 

another. They are elliptic with entire margins. The flowers are pale green. The plants bloom from March to May. The flowers are arranged in racemes. The fruits are berries. It can withstand temperatures above 1oc and 2oc (Burkill, 1985).

Taxonomy

 

Family:                              Capparaceae

 

Genus:                               Crateva

 

Species:                            Crateva adansonii DC

 

Phylum/Division:       Magnoliophyta

 

Sub division:                 Magnoliophytina

 

Classes:                            Rosopsida

 

Sub class:                       Dilleniidae

 

Super order:                 Violanae

 

Order:                                Capparales

 

 

The medicinal effect of Crateva adansonii plant bark is includes general healing, leprosy, stomach troubles. For the leaf, it is used in eye treatments, liver, for leaf; a pain-killer, for roots, dropsy, swellings, edema, gout,

 

17


veneral diseases. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism,

 

itch, epilepsy and asthma.

 

1.3 Research Aim and Objectives

 

Aim:

 

 

To study the anti-inflammatory effect of dichloromethane fraction extracts from Crateva adansonii on rats.

 

 

 

Objectives:

 

i)          To  determine  the  anti-inflammatory  effect  of

 

Crateva adansonii extracts in methanol on rats.

 

ii)        To  determine  the  phytochemicals  present  in

 

Crateva adansonii extract in methanol on rats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18


 

CHAPTER TWO

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.0 Definition of Inflammation


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