1.1 Background of study.
The Nigerian electorate in recent years has been intensely individualistic groups. Hence political parties usually confront pro-found cultural differences given the cultural structure of the Nigerian electorate.
Independent Television Benin is an electronic media with visual and audio sounds. It is an effective spontaneous messages carrier of our time. On 27th of March 1997 when Independent
Television started transmission of programmer the station radically changed the horizon of broadcasting in it coverage area. Independent
television came with a new millennium. The zeal of the founding father Sir Chief (Dr) Gabriel Osawaru Igbinedion the Esama of Benin kingdom, who after a careful study of the broadcast media yearned for an enhancement of the choice available to viewers to a level comparable to what is obtained in developed countries. Chief Igbinedion‟sdreamculminated in the approval and subsequent presentation of a license by the formal Head of state General Ibrahim Babagida on 36th June 1993, at the Ladi Kwali hall of Sheraton Hotel and Tower Abuja. It goes down in history that Independent Television was the first private owned broadcasting station in Nigeria to receive a private license No.001 on that memorable day.
Having obtained the Franchise, Sir Chief (Dr).Gabriel Osawaru Igbinedion, the Esama of Benin Kingdom went straight to work by rendering standard skeletal services under the umbrella of Independent Television Network plans were known for the birth of fully fledged Independent
Television, which resulted in the sitting of the station at Igwsa because of the high attitude of the location A 1000 feet mast was erected by ALLAN DICK, a reputable firm based in London. An Italian company TECHNO SYSTEM, with its team of highly qualified Engineers delivered and installed Independent television a pair of its best transmitters of Ten kilowatts capacity, transmitting on channel 22UHF. Independent Television which commended fully transmission on the 27th March, 1997 watts stronger with fans growing in leaps and bounds by the day.
On the first of September 1997, the management and staff paid courtesy visit to the Benin monarch, HRF OMO N‟ Oba n‟ EdoThe royalUKUfatherApolokpollauded the station and enjoined members to keep the flag flying. Also the then Edo military administrator Group Captain Baba Adamu Iyam played host to the management and staff of Independent television.
Nigeria broadcasting code is the compass that directs the affairs of Independent Television and Radio under the supervision of the National Broadcasting commission NBC. The commission also approved channel 42UHF for Independent Television to transmit its program in the federal capital territory. The license was presented to the investor, the Esama of Benin kingdom, on the 17th of December 1999. Independent Television Benin satisfies curiosity by allowing one to hear
for oneself and view for one‟soverstatementself.Againanditsabilitythatto it disseminate information in various dialects also serves as a tonic to language barrier. Independent television Benin, as integral part of the fourth estate of the realm, is expected as
usual to play its traditional role on political trend inspires responsiveness to the medium and has become a major feature of campaigns for public office seekers at national, state and local government levels. Most rural dwellers are known to be financially poor because of their low educational status and cannot afford a television set. This has also been a problem of efficient
and effective use of Television in achieving political mobilization in the rural areas. The term Independent Television Benin political services rendered to the populace to bring about information, education entertainment and influence in rural dwellers. Apart from those general roles, it enhances and encourages through its various programs the acquisition and pursuit of knowledge, thereby promoting national consciousness and acts as a powerful means of social mobilization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The potency of mass media in political aspect cannot be over-emphasized. The role of television in mobilizing the masses for electoral activities is very obvious in the sense that it uses audio-visual methods to transfer message to the electorate.
Due to the centralization of media organization in the urban areas in Nigeria, rural dwellers are sometimes left in the hand of the opinion leaders who sometimes use propaganda techniques
to lure the rural dwellers into voting blindly. However, Independent Televi reaches the rural dwellers especially those in Uziare local government and some programs are
developed by the station to mobilize the rural dwellers on political activities especially during elections, thus, the question this study seeks to unveil is how successful are the programs by Independent Television Benin in mobilizing the people of Uziare and surrounding rural areas during political activities
1.3 Research Objectives
This study has the following objectives:
mobilizing voters in rural areas during elections.
ii. To find out the responses of the rural areas surrounding ITV and programs of Independent Television Benin that promotes political mobilization.
iii. To examine the strategies employed by Independent Television Benin to achieve political mobilization in Uziare and surrounding areas.
1.4 Research Questions
1. How can exposure to Independent Television Benin on Political programmes change the minds of audience towards their choice of candidate?
2. Have Independent Television Benin, programmes been able to create any positive impact on the political life of the people?
3. To what extent does exposure to Independent Television Benin programmes affect people‟s voting pattern?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will help to create awareness on the need for proper use of Independent Television Benin in political mobilization of people in Uziare local government area. It will also help to create a more co-ordinate socio-political and socio-economic awareness on some burning issues at the grassroots. It is also hoped that the research will help in promoting political participation and natural consciousness. It will ensure continued education for the rural population.
H1: Exposure of Independent Television politic
From the research topic, this study is limited to just Uziare local government area. Uziare local government comprises of five villages namely Jattu, Afasho, Afowa, Iyamo, Ayogena. It covers adult, youth, male and females inclusive who are involved in various businesses, there are farmers and also student. This study also covers how Independent Television Benin helps in political mobilization of Uziare local government area.
1.8 Operational Definitions
Mobilization: this means to work together in order to achieve a particular aim.
Political: act of governing for better and more rewarding life.
Rural Area: Any under developed area in this project
Uziare: local government area.
Independent Television: The medium for transmitting information values for the rural areas.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter is a review of related studiesolitical t
Mobilization of Rural Areas.” The chapter is organized und
2.2 Review of Concepts
The following concepts were reviewed
2.2.1 Development of Television in Nigeria
Television broadcasting in Nigeria started with the initiative of the first western region premier, Chief Obafemi Awolowo who on October 31 1959 launched, Television broadcasting at Ibadan the headquarters of the region.
The western Regional government went into partnership with the overseas Re-diffusion limited. The Nigerian Radio vision service limited was created with the responsibility of radio and television station broadcasting under one management.
A small transmitter of 500 watts power was mounted on Mopa Hill in Ibadan and another at Abafor near Ikorodu. The Television was therefore established to disseminate information and entertain viewers. The radio and television stations in the western Region pioneered commercial broadcasting in Nigeria to supplement government subvention.
In 1962, the western region government took full control of the WNBS/WNTV by buying overall the shares held by the overseas Re-diffusion Ltd.
In the same year, the Nigeria Television service was born in Lagos with the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and the National Broadcasting Company International Limited managing the station. But the management was eventually handed over to Reverend Victor Badejo, who was then the acting Directing General of the NBC. The federal Military Government of Nigeria under General Olusegun Obansajo (as he then was) took over the Television stations in Nigeria, in 1978 and changed its name to Nigeria Television authority (NTA). Today Nigeria has thirty-six stats with each aspiring to set up her own Television station. The federal government is also making efforts to establish a branch of NTA in each state. The television station started beaming color programs thus, however, opened in the history of television broadcasting in Nigeria with the federal government takeover of all television services in 1978 (supra). All Television stations are made to beam network programs.
Many state governments have, however, established more television and radio stations since then. Then of the state Television stations have been competing favorably with the federal government station.
A new chapter was opened in the history of Nigeria broadcasting in 1992, the federal government under general Ibrahim Babangida deregulated the broadcast industry by granting license to private individuals and organizations to set up radio and Television broadcasting stations. As at today, there are over thirty. There were 2 government controlled Television broadcast stations in Nigeria in 1999 and 14 licenses to operate private Television. There are ii short-wave stations in Nigeria. Throughout the country there are 23.5 million radio sets and 6.9 million Television sets.
In 1992 the National Broadcasting commission (NBC) was founded to monitor and regulate broadcasting on a national basis. One goal of the organization is to open up the industry to the market place. Both foreign and domestic participation is sought. A total of nine mandates are itemized in the chapter of the NBC.
Additionally, the agency has the role of arbitrator between the industry and other areas of the
government. Education is also the component of the organizati ensuring the development of trained personnel through accredited curricular and programs that
offer courses in mass communication and broadcasting. And the final mandate is to guarantee the liberty and protection of the broadcasting industry under the constitution.
Nigeria‟s presidentBoardofcommissionappointsforthebasedon theadvice of the minister of information. The Commission consists of a chairman, the Direct-General. Ten other members
are also on the broadcasting. And the final mandate is to guarantee the liberty and protection of the broadcasting industry under the constitution.
Nigeria‟s president appoints the Broad of c information. The commission consists of a chairman, the director-General. The other member are
also on the board representing law, business, culture, education social science, broadcasting, public affairs, engineering and state security service. Members serve on the board on a part-time basis. The Director-General, who occupies the role of chief executive, conducts day-to-day oversight. That position is assist by the secretary to the commission and the board of management which includes the Heads of Directorate and department.
Objectives of Television
To act as a catalyst for social change
To promote national integration
To stimulate greater agricultural and production by providing essential information and knowledge
To promote and help preservation of environmental and ecological balance
To highlight the need for social welfare measures including welfare of women, children and the privilege
To promote interest games and sports
To stimulate appreciation of our artistic and cultural heritage like many states in Nigeria, television Broadcasting has come a long way. It has evolved from the home countries of the colonial masters of the poor natives in Nigeria.
An Independent, the Africa leaders were to know the effect of broadcasting on the people and so used it as government mega phone. It could help inform people for government attention and because of the high illiteracy level, television broadcasting is preferred to other media of communication because it has both audio and visual method of broadcasting Government policies could be translated into local languages and broadcast to the people. Over the decades, broadcasting in Africa has served as the channel for government propaganda.
However, in Nigeria, television has been seen as a way or communication channel in which the government communicates to by the governed basically, libertarian or free press theory prescribes that an individual should be free to publish what he or she likes and hold and express opinions freely. Soon it was extended to include freedom of assembly with others. The theory flourished most in the earlier half of the 19th century, during which reference to the press
as “the fourth Estate of the Realm” becomes c
Libertarian medial is well known for their philosophy of nationalism and natural gift rights. Capable of thinking for themselves, they exist to check on governments and that requires that they will be free of government control. However, nobody has ever said that the freedom should include freedom to defame, to indulge in unbridled obscenity, to violate individual privacy or to commit sedition, no therefore it advocates that people should be left free and given access to types of idea from which they should freely choose. So to be liberated from the government control so that they can provide a free market place of idea for enlightenment of the people.
Under this theory, the press is seen as a partner in the search for truth instead of a tool of government. Freedom here refers to free expression and free dissemination of information of all kinds of information and study mass- media (television) under this theory its tries to expose the rural dwellers on political mobilization you give them detailed information freely nobody will force you to do what to do like voting, all the rural-dwellers needs to do is just to think and know the right decision to take because this particular theory is a free market place of idea, there is no kind of bias from individual that will make you not to do what you exactly you what. Here the television has free access to any kind of information and the people job is to look into the information. They have the right to say no or yes to the information been disseminated without bids of any kind.
Without an appropriate feed-back system, communication should be a four way process.
That the urban people could communicate to the rural people (urban-rural communication).
That communication can also emanate from the urban people (urban-urban communication).
That the rural people are also at liberty to communicate with the urban population (Rural-Urban communication)
That the rural people can also communicate amongst themselves (rural-rural communication).
2:2.2 Role of Television in Political Mobilization of Rural Development in Nigeria
This Pre supposes the fact that any serious government must identify the various segments of the society and be able to develop mobilization messages through the help of the leadership in these
segments, In order to ensure the appropriateness and relevance of such messages to their audience so that the mobilization effects would be accepted and adopted by these social sciences, the idea of political bureau (1987-2002) human history to mobilize different human societies e.g. rural areas so as to achieve some set goals.
This being the case, it is appropriate to ask the question: what is political mobilization? What it is about? Why is it necessary in the rural area? Television is also useful in political mobilization as it has been viewed within the academia in line with its almost infinite rate concerning human efforts in mobilization themselves for the attainment of better Conditions of existence. It is on this premise that the political bureau in its report (1987: 2002) implied definitions of (political mobilization thus:
Simply stated, to mobilize people is to increase their level of awareness of certain set objectives with a view of achieving those objectives.
Adeniyi and Ebigbola (Onajide Et al, 1990) vividly summed up the situation that rural area development is conceived differently at different times and place. The television has helped. It is one of the medium you can use for the rural area development in terms of political mobilization in Nigeria. This notwithstanding, it is the conviction of the author that the concept of rural area development can hardly be reasonably explicated without paying attention to the separation that exists between the rural area and political mobilization. The rural area development means the improvement of the social, political and economic conditions in rural places, creating better job opportunities, increased awareness family incomes and providing. Television has helped us to eradicate ignorance in the television areas since culture cannot.
Television help to remove the negative aspect of some of our culture and has helped the citizen to absorb that which will improve their welfare, Awareness level and consciousness to what is going on in the communities as a whole. Television has done much in political mobilization of the people in the rural area. In political mobilization they get feel like choosing without bias of any individual. In the rural area, development consists of deliberate efforts mobilized to eradicate or reduce to the barest minimum society and economic ills that persist in diminishing the qualities of life in the communities. This is according to Bamidele (In Onajide et al; 1990).
Along the line, Nwosu and chukwumezurike (1987) explained mobilization as a process that involves bringing people together and moving them to action, and also making them submit themselves strongly to the achievement of any social goal. From the foregoing we can take political mobilization as a process of sensitizing the citizen (rural areas) increasing their
cognition, political consciousness as well a mobilization could be taken to mean the determined process of emotionally bringing people
together and making them to internalize communality of societal values, attitudes and orientation in achieving particularity specified objectives.
Put together, the relevance of television to political mobilization in rural areas as per those definitions and other ones in identifiable from there now claimed four important goals of
These goals show that the television institution is a mechanism for mobilization integrating the grass rooters. The role and indispensability of the television institution in this respect are particularly relevant inputs and commitment of the fertility of the later or same. In order words, television exists to bring about democracy, serve as base for political participation and education. It equally exists to provide services and serve as a vehicle for rural development (Opla op.c.t: 10-14). Hence televisions are to political mobilization, rural area development and political stability what basic tissues are to human body. And without them they would have no vitality (Blair op c:t: 4) to the lives of the rural inhabitants.
2.2.3 Role of Television in Politics
Research into mass communication effects indicate that the television is more powerful at the learning and information levels than at the persuasion level. In the area of politics, accumulated research, evidence has continued to point in this direction where the mass media are available and accessible, peoples knowledge of public affairs depends largely on what television tells them. Because we can hear too little for ourselves studies of the impact of television at the learning and information level, particularly in relations to politics, shows the power of television in conferring status and legitimacy on people as well as the power of television in setting the political agenda in the communities. Television has the power to determine the topics for political debate and discussion in the rural areas. In this regard mass media expert tells us that even when the media do not tell the electorate what and what to think about, that is, the issue being the same issue and event which have featured in the mass media.
The independent television Benin (I T B) was basically established to restore order out of chaos, to restore the sense of national unity and propagate common cultural bonds through television broadcasting. Other functions include the following
1. The provision of independent and impartial television services and to ensure that its services reflect the unit of Nigeria as a federation and at the same time to give adequate expression to the culture, characteristics and affairs of each state.
2. To plan and coordinate the activities of the entire television network.
3. To ensure the establishment and maintenance of standards and promote the efficient operation of the entire system in accordance with national policy.
4. To establish such number of production centers as it may consider necessary from time to time.
5. To collect in any part of the world both news and information from news agencies.
2.2.4 Independent Television as an Instrument of Political Mobilization
Communication, with its immense possibilities for influencing the minds and behaviors of people, can be a powerful means of promoting democratization of society of widening public participation in the decision making process. This depends on the structure and practices of the media, there management and to what extent they facilitate broad access and open the communication process to a free interchange of ideas, information and experience among the people.
Macbride et al as quoted by Okunna (“54”)
Communication is a political instrument all over the world and the relationship between politics and communication is an indissoluble one. In the advanced industrial, societies television is actually and integrally parts of political life, serving people as their major or only link with the government and providing the information which they require to make political judgment and on which they base their political attitudes.
Television no doubt bridges the gap between the government and the people. Obviously, people need not only news which encourages and reassures them in their desires and expectations or confirm their sets ideas but also information which can validly lead them to alter, moderate or balance their judgment and opinions.
The awaken molding critical awareness constitutes a crucial aspect of democratization in the communication process.
Television contributes to the growth and development of National unity and participating democracy. Political mobilization creates and promotes political awareness amongst the people to achieve a democratic society. It awakes in the people, the spirit of tolerance of all shades of opinions and social justice based on the responsibility and right of the individual in the societies.
On this note, Wale(1956) explained that television and news are undoubtedly the means by which a part of the central government learn what is happening and what might happen in another, on the of the people, the media inform them on current political issues.
conscience them towards bracing up necessary action against political injustice done to them”,
the question now is, how has television programmed helped to mobilize the people.
Onobanjo(2007), cited in Duyile (2005) says, a programs is a broadcast material created to meet
certain specific need or attain some set objectives and transmitted to some pre-determined target
A television program refers to material or packages put together by an individual to be aired on a
television station. Such individual may be a presenter. Producer, director or talent the television
has certain operative systems which when followed accordingly would lead to a carefully and
well produced programmed.
The production of a television program is a complex process. On this note, Zetti (1976) “notes it
requires careful planning and much preparation by workers with artistic and technical skill. “
The art of programming itself refers to the strategic selection of program me material that is
appropriate of suitable to a particular segment of pre-defined target audience. It is also a
sequential activity that presumes the organization of materials is a coherent program service
suitable to the target audience.
Dunu (2002) Says:
As the bedrock and mainstay of broadcasting programming involves a long term calculated, planned policy expressed in pre-determined executable action which is appropriately implemented and executed as individual program operations, wins maximum success for the station. Programming as a feature of broadcasting, has basic factors, which includes. Research planning of materials execution and evaluation
In rural broadcasting Onosu and Umolu (2010) noted that programming performs the function of integration, development agenda setting plus the primary function of informing, educating and entertaining.
Thus, the function of programming is to provide for the rural dwellers a bridge between urbanity or modernity and rural dweller and primitiveness.
Thus, every television program must contain well thought out parts or elements carefully arranged and linked together to a unit, and since television deals with both sounds and picture, al the component part must be properly fuse together to make a component whole.
The television produce depends on the human vocation, pictures, sounds/ music and sound picture effects all blended with feature narrative to tell a cohesive story. Since the raw materials for a community, television program are usually drawn from the community then a thorough understanding of the community is paramount.
Each programme so produced should have the effect of education, information, entertaining and awareness creation as it is main purpose and objectives.
Different programs such as news, documentary educational, how to do it, forums, sports and features, should all reflex the specifics and features, should all reflect the specific need of the audience.
Each program Content is evaluated based on the extent to which that content to which that content reflects current social trends meets the needs of the audience. Regulatory constraints come in form of laws and regulations. In Nigeria, for instance, the government through the NBC monitors the programs content should reflect the culture, and values of the people, and should also be used as a vehicle for furthering development…..
Thus, rural community producers should strive to dish out quality programs that will positively
mobilized the people especially in times of national emergences, like religious riots, war
economic disorder or to perform such civic responsibilities as voting during election.
In the economic sphere, the television producer should patronize the immediate environment.
This will help to stimulate economic and socio-political development of such community.
Since the program is for the rural dwellers, the materials should be sourced from among the
people, processed and given back to them. This will make them feel that they belong and are part
and parcel of the station.
2.3 Review of Related Studies
2.3.1 Akpan (1987) Media Information has tremendous energy for change
The aim of this study was to discover how Change which is refers to learning, manifests in the
needed part of the rural areas where a good number of the people are wallowing in ignorance.
They therefore need media information to participate fully in elements because through the
media, they will fully participate because they will learn their political rights and obligation.
They therefore need media information to improve in all aspect of life. For instance, in political
aspect, they need media information to participate fully in element because they will learn their political right and obligations.
Akpan (1987) does a step, further by stating that “Television can be a very good medium for mobilizing and educating the people. It can be used to transmit knowledge. It ability to talk more and be heard makes television very unique.”
Akpan (1987) also sees television as a very powerful visual and audio aid in teaching or learning process. According to him, with television the learner can hear and see demonstrations at close quarters. For instance, the political aspirant‟scarryoutheir campaign in the television station. The candidates are also heard on the television advertising them. With this, people can then decide on whom to vote for. Television therefore has the capacity to pass knowledge thus, the occurrence of learning.
In this case he is trying to tell us that television being visual and audio could be a good medium for mobilizing and educating the rural dwellers on politics as it makes them to hear for themselves rather than being total. In Nigeria, research evidence shows the use of radio as a medium of mobilization is twiddle spread, even among rural populations.
The president‟s campaignisionoriented, wemustchangebethe perceptiontelevofliterally millions of voters and this can only be done through the mass-media with the principle emphasis on television.
From the above, we can understand that the best medium through which we can campaign is the television .it is a good medium for mobilizing political aspirants who wish to sell themselves as to win people over, especially those in the rural areas.
Television can help because it requires an indoor newer unlike the radio. It is also used for mobilization, political functions social functions, socialization etc. television is a medium that can be used to tell the rural dweller what is going on in the local government. It helps to mobilize the rural areas. To do what they are asked to do without complain.
A rural area is an area based to improve the life of people in that area. To achieve these some factors must be squarely studied for more impact of mobilization, desire culture and educational level etc.
Desire Interest: You must broadcast what is the desire of that local government. It must high-light their interest, create inter active program. The person employed to work in that station may not be from there.
Culture: It is the people way of life, so it is not attended then the Television is beaten around
Educational Level: There may be secondary level, teach area so when they are disseminating information they should do it in a way that everybody in
that rural area will participate in the programs.
2.4. Theoretical Framework.
This study is based on Social responsibility theory which is one of the four normative theories of the press. This theory came as a result of Hutchins commission on freedom of the press that was established in 1942 and it released a major report of its findings in 1947. This theory involves a number of ways in which the state could attempt to play role in attempting to ensure that news
media fulfilled their social responsibility and obligations. At the same time tries t retain the Independence of Journalism and freedom of speech.
Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship but at the same time the content of the press should be discussed in public panel and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self regulations or both. The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but the external controls in other hand. Here, the press ownership is private. The social
responsibility theory moves beyond the simple “Interpretative” reporting (investigative rep but the commission of the freedom press stated that “No longer givi give a necessary analyzed or interpretativeThetheory r helped in creating professionalism in media by setting up a high level of accuracy, truth, and
It emphasizes the need for an Independent press that scrutinizes other social institutions and provides objectives, accurate news reports. The most innovative feature of social responsibility
theory is its call for media to be responsible for fostering productive and cr
Communities.” It said that media should do thi the voice of all the people, not just elite groups that had dominated national, regional, or local
culture in the past. In some respects, Social responsibility theory is a radical statement. Instead of demanding that media be free to print or transmit their owners want, social responsibility theory imposes a burden on media practitioners.
This theory encourages the press to see themselves as front as front-line participants in the battle to preserve democracy in the world drifting inexorably towards totalitarianism. The researcher has decided to use this theory because of the following:
It allows everyone to say something or express their opinion about the media.
It allows Community opinion, Consumer action and professional ethics.
It allows serious invasion of recognized private rights and vital social interests.
Private ownership in media may give better public service unless government has to take over to assure the public to provide better media service.
Media must take care of social responsibility and if they do not, government or other organization will do.
2.5 Summary of Literature Review
This chapter reviewed the concepts of development of Television in Nigeria and also the role of Television in rural Development in Nigeria. It also had a review of studies related to the study. From the above, we can understand that the best medium through which we can campaign is the television .it is a good medium for mobilizing political aspirants who wish to sell themselves as to win people over, especially those in the rural areas.
Akpan (1987) also sees television as a very powerful visual and audio aid in teaching or learning process. According to him, with television the learner can hear and see demonstrations at close
quarters. For instance, the political aspira
The candidates are also heard on the television advertising them. With this, people can then
decide on whom to vote for. Television therefore has the capacity to pass knowledge thus, the occurrence of learning.
Television can help because it requires an indoor newer unlike the radio. It is also used for mobilization, political functions social functions, socialization etc. television is a medium that can be used to tell the rural dweller what is going on in the local government. It helps to mobilize the rural areas. To do what they are asked to do without complain. In this study, the statement of the problem in Uziare local government was stated, the objectives of the research were looked into and some research questions were put forward to answer the problems in this research. The theoretical framework used is the Social Responsibility theory which is propounded by Hutchins Commission on Freedom of the press that was established in 1942.
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