CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1.            Background of the study

 

This chapter gives us an introduction mpacttoof theBreathawayresearch(CRBCTV) ‟I as related to children behavioral problems (A study of Yakurr Local Government Area).

 

The mass media is the means of passing information through the use of various channels or media (television, radio, newspaper e.t.c.) to a large heterogeneous crowd. The mass media is a significant force in modern culture, communities and individual are bombarded constantly with messages from a multitude of sources mainly television, billboard and magazine. The messages of the media promote not only moods, attitudes and a sense of what is and not important. In this study we are focusing on the electronic form of communication.

 

The television is a system of sending and receiving pictures and sound by means of electronic signals transmitted through wires and optical fibers or by electronic magnetic radiation. Television is the most widespread form of communication in the world. These widespread availability and exposure makes the television the primary focus of most mass media discussions. Therefore television plays a role in grooming of culture or social behavior of lives.

 

Television has become one of the most powerful times activity ever since its birth in Nigeria it has shared pattern of behavior. Television has educated, informed entertained individuals in so many ways. Television has also brought about cultural pollution of cultural beliefs and norms. Television Is a telecommunication for transmitting in receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black and white) or colored with or without accompanying sound. Television may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming or television transmission.

 

Programming is broadcast by television sta for entertainment and news. Since the 1950s television has been the main medium for molding

 

public opinion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Television is said to be one of the most popular and persuasive form of communication, it

 

is found in most homes in Nigeria is a medium of communication with sound, visual

 

compliments, it makes uses of electronic media.

 

The media influence on children is as old as the media itself, there isn‟tthat a dou

 

the media has an impact on a child, but is it so influential that it can make a child do something

 

that they would never thought of doing it till they see it on television.

 

1.2 Statement of the problem

 

The youths and children constitute a large percentage of audience of television stations in Cross River State. The Breath Away programme has highlighted a lot of antisocial characteristics and tendencies have been viewed by a lot of children in Cross River State.

 

Therefore, this study is to research on the impact of Breath Away, Cross River Broadcasting cooperation (CRBC TV) on the social behavior of children and the possible solutions using Yakurr Local Government as case study.

 

 

1.3 Objectives of the study

 

The following are the objectives of the study

To know the number of children exposed to the Breath Away Programme, Cross River State Broadcasting Television.

To know how parents and guardians guide their children on the viewership of the Breath Away Programme, Cross River State Broadcasting Television

To know the impact of Breath Away Programme on children of Yakurr Local Government Area

 

1.4  Research Questions

 

What number of children in Yakurr Local government Area have access to Breath Away

 

Television Programme?

How can parents guide their children on the viewership of Breath Away Programme?

 

What is the impact of Breath Away on the lives of children in Yakurr Local Government Area?

 

1.5  Research Hypotheses

 

H1 Every child has access to Breath Away Television Programme (CRBC) in Yakurr Local Government Area

 

 

 

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H0- Every child hasn‟taccess to Breath Away Television Programme (CRBC) in Yakurr Local Government Area

 

H2-Parents can guide their children on viewership of the Breath-Away television programme.

 

H0-parents theircan‟tchildren onguideviewership of the Breathe Away television programme,.

 

1.6.            Scope or delimitation of the study

 

This research is on children in cross river state that have been exposed to the programmes breath away CRBC TV using yakurr lga as our focal point

 

1.7.            Significance of the study

 

At the end of these study, the work should have to light the dangers breath away programme on the lives and social behavior of children .thus, this will serve as a guide to broaden knowledge and the write up will also benefit media, workers, mass communicator, student and the public generally.

 

1.8              Definition of terms

 

This work was operationally defined

 

Operational definition: This is the definition of terms given in the researchers personal understanding as its related to the work.

 

Impact: The effect the breath away has on children.

 

Breath Away: This Programme is aired by CRBC TV from 9am to 1pm during the day and 9pm to 12pm in the night. It covers or airs the Calabar carnival celebration

 

Relate: To concern involves or apply to somebody or something officially

 

Social behavior-It is the way an individual relates to the society, behavior wise.It is the behavior of a person while relating with others.

 

Problem: A Difficult situation, matter or person.

 

Children: A young human between birth and puberty.

 

CRBC: A network station owned by Cross River State.

 

Television: An electronic device for receiving and reproducing the images and sounds of a combined audio and video signal.

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER TWO

 

 

2.1.            Introduction

 

This chapter is empirically reviewed of related stud

 

Breath Away (CRBC TV) as related to children social behavioral problems.

 

2.2  Review of concepts

 

2.3  Review of related studies

 

2.4  Theoretical frame work

 

2.5  Summary

 

 

 

 

2.2              Review of concepts

 

The following concepts were reviewed

 

a)      Television viewing on children

 

b)      The concept of social behavior

 

c)      The concept of Breath-Away

 

d)     The Cross River Broadcasting Television.

 

2.2.1        Television viewing on children

 

Television has the potential to generate both positive and negative effects; many studies have looked at the impact of television on society, particularly on children and adolescence. An

 

individual child‟s developmental level is a c have positive and negative effects.

 

 

 

There is a relationship between watching violent television programmes and increase in violent behavior in children. Television programmes may encourage irresponsible sexual behavior.

 

 

 

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Studies have shown using different perspective that argued that television exerts a significant alienating impact or influence on the indigenous culture and self perception of an individual .The accumulative effect of which is the depreciating of the Nigeria self image or cultural identity.

 

Consequently the Nigeria media‟s audience in the mesh of confusion of values. This is exemplified in their mode of dressing, speech mannerism, and socio-cultural life.

 

 

 

It has wrought no little damage to how our youths perceive our culture and environment. increased violent act, HIV infection, immoral acts and others vices.

 

Over the years critics have raised concern over what they consider as detriment or negative effects of television to children.

 

The major concern is the anti-social behaviors noticed amongst children that are directly linked to some type of programmes in child abuse over what they consider as detriments or negative effects of television to children.

 

The major concern is the anti-social behavior noticed amongst children that are directly linked to some type of programmes, a child has been exposed to on television. The two issues or areas where most concern has been raised are the effects of television violence and portrayal of sex and nudity on young children.

 

Television has been blamed for the liberalization of sexual behavior noticed in the past four decades according to critics the electronic media have aided and abetted sexual immorality and morality decadence among unmarried youth by portrayal of nudity, celebration of premarital sex, adultery, homosexual, lesbianism and the use of foul language. However like television little casual relationship has been found to link sexually explicit materials with anti social behavior (Wood 1983;260).

 

 

2.2.2        Concept of social behavior

 

In physiology and sociology, social behavior is behavior directed towards society or taking place between members of the same specie.

 

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In sociology behavior itself means an animal like activity devoid of social meaning or social context, in contrast to social behavior which have both in a sociological hierarchy, social behavior is followed by social actions which is directed at other people and is designed to induce a response.

 

Social behavior is a term used to describe the general conduct exhibited by individual within a society, which is essentially in response to what is deemed acceptable by a persons peer group. This type of human behavior primarily determines how individuals interact with one another within a group and a society. Durkheim (1912) and Weber(1924) suggested that much of social order is a product of social norms and rules, Benard (2012) The dramatic influence of rapidly growing media among he said the media are distributors and drivers of social change. We need an increased understanding of the effect of media to help manage our future. Our society

 

must grapple with our cultural or religiousshape s us, The social behavior of our children in Nigeria has been anti-social. Our youths now have

 

luxury ,they have bad manners contempt for authority; they show disrespect for their elders and love chatter in place of exercise; they no longer rise and chatter before company; gobble up their food and tyrannize their Fathers (Socrates)

 

Children are growing up amid electronic media influences it is important for parents to consider how the many television programmes‟mightendup affecting social life, development, academics and adjustment and how parents can serve as buffer from some of the potential negative effects.

 

Violent and sexual content in television programmes bring their own concerns. Exposure to violence has lead to more aggressive behavior, thoughts and more angry feeling, less empathy, fewer helping behavior and increase in fear.

 

Sexualized content which appear frequently in television programmes bring their own concerns. These sort of programmes are associated with poor attitude towards women and increase in rape with acceptances, increases in violence against women and finally an increase immorality and indecency in our society.

 

 

 

 

 

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2.2.3. Concept of Breath Away

 

The Breath Away pprogramme is aired by CRBC Television Calabar. The programme stated its production on the 1st of production on the 1st of December 2004.The programme is anchored by Tony Orok and Emem Isong. It covers the Calabar carnival which kicks of from the 1st of December to the 31st of December from the time 10am to 12pm in the morning and in the night from 9.30pm till 12pm.Then its shown once a month, every 3rd Saturday in the month.

 

The Breath Away programme showcases the events that go on during the Calabar carnival. From the music shows, Calabar carnival beauty contest, the street parties, drama shows, carnival cup about regatta and fashion shows, not allowing its audience to miss any action that takes place in the course of events. So its local viewers wherever they are in Cross River State have the opportunity to experience the carnival celebration via television broadcast.

 

Although the carnival is an elegant show of African unique display, we should also be aware of neo colonialism and cultural imperialism that has swept through of Nation, Nigeria. The Calabar carnival was put up by our ex governor of Cross River State, his Excellency Mr Donald Duke to reunite the public with their lost culture taking us back tp our grass roots. Displaying how beautiful our culture is and promote it before the eyes of indigenes and foreigners alike.

 

The Calabar carnival has come a long way and also has Breath Away programme. It started in 2004 when the Ex Governor of Cross River State, Mr Donald Duke had a vision of

 

making Cross River State the hub for tourism and hospitality in to Osima-Dokubo, the carnival aimed to include more aspects of local heritage and culture and at

 

the same time strengthen the capacity of the to participate in an economically beneficial way.

 

The Breath away displays the high and low of the carnival, it shows the night shows that take place and the morning shows. The carnival on its own is not enough to corrupt the mind of children, but the events that take place in the night shows and even on the carnival itself might be harmful to children. The latest addition of semi-naked Brazilian girls to the street party and brazen show of sexuality on the stage during the night shows, vulgar language used by both Foreign and local artist and the exuberant show of violence might affect or contribute in affecting their lives negatively.

 

 

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2.2.4. Breath Away and Children

 

According to Mrs. Iwara a Senior lecturer in the University Of Calabar of the Department Of Social Studies expressed concern over the growing rate of sexual immorality, violent behavior and high level of nudity prevalent in Cross River State today. She commented on what could be the possible outcome of this detour in social and moral values amongst Cross Riverians, she blamed the media, the carnival and also the Breath Away progaramme as being responsible for the pollution of the minds of our kids.

 

They allown ladiesourto walkfullyaroundthe blostreetsnaked, allow violent behavior to be shown to our kids, bring in foreign artist, who bring their gutter language, along with them on our stage and preach to us things that are alien to our culture and our children hear this constantly on television and Breath Away and Breath Away program me carries this information to the rural parts in Cross River State through CRBC television and we expect this not to change their lives and perception of the world.

 

Growing concern has been raised about whether or not to the Breath Away should be allowed to

 

show everything that goes on during the carnival. Dr Iwara also said we sh our kids and is not in improving ourselves, we destroy ourselves.

 

The concern is the high level of indecency, immorality and fowl language which might affect our children negatively tomorrow if not properly handled.

 

2.2.5        The Cross River Broadcasting Television

 

The Cross River Broadcasting Television was established by the cross state government

 

in 1978 to primarily educate, entertain and enlighten the populace but today the success story goes beyond the state.

 

Operating two electronic media that is FM radio and transmitting on 105.5kw and UHF Television on channel 27, The CRBC has emerged as the first successful corporate combination in the history of Nigeria, spanning its coverage area to neighboring Abia, Akwa ibom, Ebonyi, Enugu, Benue and some parts of Western Cameroon. Although the CRBC operates within the regulatory framework of the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC).It emerged at a time where there was burning desire for information dissemination in the South Eastern State.

 

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Today CRBC plays the lead role within the South South taking Nigeria into the new era of a consumer friendly broadcast as well as accelerating the face of propagating government policies and programme.

 

While spreading their footprints across to earn the reputation as the face of broadcasting in Nigeria. We have for six year now been operating 24 hour non stop broadcasting as a full service institution couple with a well articulated management profile.

 

CRBC today in the South South geo-political zone of Nigeria has the largest distribution network with the Radio operating three radio stations with a master control room (MCR) which can also be adequately used for live broadcast and recording programme as well as three stereos and digital television for the same purpose.

 

Cross River Broadcasting Cooperation has over 300 staff with more than 90% professionally trained for modern broadcasting.

 

The corporation has acquired and installed state of the equipment for both its radio and TV services (studio and transmitters) with the strong recognition of outside broadcast as an apparatus of today‟sbroadcast.

 

A three television studio with their respective control rooms can also be used for live and recorded programme the TV studio originate stereo signals (Audio) with digital compliant output studio equipment.

 

CRBC has digitally compliant transmitters installed in various locations to cover the entire state and neighboring states earlier mentioned and operate 24 hours non-stop.

 

2.3.            Review of related studies

 

The following studies were reviewed:

 

 

Gerbner, G. (1969). Dimension of Violence inandtheTelevisionMedia,eds R.K. Baker and S.J. Ball. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 313 327.

 

Lilivingstone, S (1990). Making Sense Of Television,London: Peragon

 

 

 

9


Media influence on children

 

There are two important factors that must be included in the discussion of media influence on children. One factor, called media literacy was addressed by Renee Hobbs, Hobbs contended that

 

just because our students cantheyuseareeffectivemediaat and critically analyzing and evaluating the messages they receive. Students need a set of skills to ask

 

important questions about what they watch, see, listen to and read. Often called media literacy, these skills include the ability to critically analyze media messages and the ability to use

 

different kinds of communication technologies

 

 

A child who is media illiterate is more vulnerable to being influenced by messages in all kinds of media.

 

The second factor that can affect how children are influenced by media is the amount of parental involvement in supervising media exposure of children. The U.S department of education office of educational office of educational research and improvement published guidelines in 1994 that said

 

parental monitoring is a key factor, since from parents is at least as simple as important as simply reducing media violence. Children may

 

learn negative behavior patterns and values from many other experiences as well as TV programs, and parental guidance is needed to help children sort out these influences and develop

 

the ability to make decisions on their own.

 

 

An important media literacy skill, which can be developed through parental guidance, is a child‟sability to distinguish between reality and fantasy in media messages. Children may not be capable of making this distinction without perception and reality. But with proper adult guidance, they can learn to critique what they view

 

and become more discriminating consumers of media.

 

 

Research studies have identified the following domains of influence in which media content has been shown to have negative effects on children: violence and aggressive behavior, sexual content, body image and self esteem, and physical health and school performance.

 

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2.3.1 Defining the Role of The Media On The Child

 

It may be suggested that how wethe mediathink(and abou the possibility of influence) rather depends

 

Buckinghem et al (1999) offer four discussions which frame in which we think about children.

The vulnerable child: who is to be protected by media regulation? Child-centeredness: which justifies there being special programming for children A child as a consumer: This conceptualizes a more active child which underpins the toys and clothing market.

The child as citizen: This also assumes an active role for the child. One in which the child is a social and potential actor in the waiting.

 

 

2.3.2 History of Media Research

 

Concerns about the impact of the media on children are as old as the media themselves.

 

Systematic research into media effects did not begin until the 1920s. The first of these was Payne

 

Fund studies.

 

The Payne Fund studies supported the powerful effect theory, which predicts that media

 

will have an immediate and potent influence on their audiences. Later studies including the

 

people`s choice study and American soldier study lead to the minimal effects theory which

 

predict that the media will have little influence on behavior. Today, researchers accept a mixed

 

effect model which predicts that sometimes the media will have powerful effects, sometimes

 

minimal effects and sometimes depending on a complex variety of contingencies a mixture of

 

powerful and minimal effects.(Michael O Nkonu, pg 78,Dynamics Of Mass Media Development

 

In Nigeria.)

 

Social behavior refers ti the ways and manner of which an individual relates with fellow

 

human beings and his environment. Negative social behavior could include smoking, drinking

 

and addiction to drugs, fighting, violence, indecency and immorality.

 

The influence of the media on children could lead to negative behavioral changes in their

 

identities, attitudes, social norms, behaviors, reality formation, endorsement of ideologies and

 

commoditization.

 

 

 

 

 

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2.4              Theoretical Framework

 

Theoretical frame work provide a particular perspective or lens through which we examine a research topic through which we examine a research topic. It is the theory we base our research on. For this research work the researcher will use the Cultivation theory.

 

2.4.1        Cultivation Theory

 

Cultivation theory is a social theory which examines the long term effects of television,

 

Theprimary preposition of cultivation theory s the television world, is the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television.

 

Developed by George Gerbner and Larry Gross of the University of Pennsylvania cultivation theory derived from several large-scale research projects as part of an overall research project entitledindicacultpurposeals‟of.the culturalThe indicators project was to identify and track the cultivatedviewers. Theyeffects‟wereconcerned withofthetelevisioneffectsoof television programming (particularly violent programming) on the attitudes and behavior of American pubic.

 

Gerbner asserts that the overall concern about the effects of television on audiences

 

stemmed from the unprecedented centrality of television in American culture the theo posits that the cultivation effects occurs only after long time cumulative exposure to television,

 

He claimed that because of television contains so much violence. People who spend the most time in front of a tube in an exaggerated belief in a mean scary world. He posited that television as a mass medium of communication had formed into a common symbolic environment that bound several communities together, socializing people into standardized roles and behaviors.

 

Today, the TV set is a key member of the household, with virtually unlimited access to every person in the family. He compared the power of television to the power of religion, saying television was to modern society what religion was in earlier times.

 

Cultivation analysis is a positivistic theory meaning it assumes the existence of objective reality and value-neutral research .A study conducted by Jenning Bryant and Dorina Miron (2004), which surveyed almost 2000 articles published in the three top mass communication journals since 1956, found that cultivation analysis was the third most utilized theory showing that it continues to be one of the most popular theories in mass communication research.

 

 

 

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Cultivation theory in its most basic form suggests that exposure to television, overtime.

 

Subtly cultivates Gerbnerviewers andperceptionGrosssayof terea of the socialization of most people into standardized roles and behaviors. Its function in one

 

word enculturation. Gerbner draws attention to his work to three entities, institution messages and publics which he seeks to analyze.

 

 

2.5              Summary

 

In this chapter we‟ve looked into and dis

 

study, the concepts of social behavior, television, Breath Away and the Cross River Broadcasting corporation, we also reviewed literature that was relevant to our research study. We adopted the cultivation theory, which we based our research on.

 

We also looked at television being the long awaited messiah for efficiency in mass mobilization. And the Breath Away programme in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation, which shows us the highs and lows of the carnival celebration and it is broadcast live in more than five states across South-South zone in Nigeria.

 

In this chapter we have looked at the negative aspects of television on the social behavior of Nigerian children, And if this is not controlled would lead to more crimes, sexual immorality and indecency, violence and being gender biased. Also in this chapter we discussed that parents and guardians can intervene, that their intervention may change a child‟sperspective of the programme.

 

From this we can conclude that television has certain influence and impacts on the lives of children especially on heavy viewers of television shows and programmes. And this impact of television on the lives of children must be guarded or controlled by the guardian or parents.

 

We haven‟t yet ascertained or certified if

 

Breath Away programme has any negative effects on the lives of children but we have to do so in the following chapter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER THREE

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

 

3.1              Introduction

 

 

This chapter discussed the method used in this research design, population of study,

 

sampling techniques/sample size, description of research

 

 

3.2.Research Design

 

 

.Research design is defined as a detailed outline of how investigation will take place. A research design will typically include how data is to be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the intended means for analyzing data collected. Parahoo (1997:142) describes a research design as a plan that describes how, when, and where data are to be collected and analyzed. It serves as a guide to step-by-step research for relevant details required to provide answers to research questions or solutions to research problems.

 

The type of research design that will be used for this study is the survey method; this is one which involves collection of data to investigate existing phenomena. It is chosen because the terms of study for this research calls for immediate response.

 

3.3              Population of Study

 

Population is the aggregate of the element under study. It is a group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed. The sample size that will be used in this study is determined based on the expense of data collected and the need to have sufficient statistical power and also the researcher selects a sample that meets his/her specific purpose. Based on scientific method and experimental judgment, the sample size for this research project will be representative of the population, the population of this study is 234,811 made up of the residents of Yakurr Local government area, headquarters Ugep, in 2012.

 

 

 

 

 

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3.4              Sampling Techniques/sample.

 

The research sample design refers to the different ways the research draws samples from a given population. This means that mass communication research project usually have budget and time constraints, for instance if a television station requires knowing how their programmes influence social behavior of children in a particular area, millions of viewers would have to be contacted, some would be inaccessible, also it would be difficult to contact all these people with I a short time period. Therefore, a researcher who wants to investigate a population with an extremely large number of population elements may elect to conduct a sample rather than census because the cost, labour, and time drawback would be relatively significant.

 

The researcher using the purposive sampling technique, the researcher purposively selected a sample size of 200 respondent. Therefore the sample size for this research is 200 respondents,.

 

3.5              Description of research instrument.

 

The instrument used for this study was the questionnaire, which is a set of questions designed to obtain written responses from th information from people about their opinion, attitude and perceptions on a given phenomenon.

 

The questionnaire was divided into two parts. Part A was on the demography of the respondents and Part B made up of structured question that answered the research hypothesis that answered the research question

 

Items 1-3 answered research question one

 

Items 4-6 answered research question two

 

Items 7-12 answered research question three

 

3.6              Validity And Reliability Of Data Gathering Instrument

 

Concerns for reliability come from the necessity for dependability in measurement. This is important because if a research does not know the reliability and validity of his data, little faith can be put in the result obtained about the conclusion drawn from the result and the conclusion drawn from the result,

 

15


 

Synonyms for reliability include dependability, consistency, predictability, and accuracy. Using any measurement without pre-testing it is evidence of poor research. At least one pilot study (prior testing) should be conducted to ensure reliability and validity of the measurement scale.

 

A pilot study was conducted in Calabar Muncipality and also Akampa. The research instrument was approved by a respected authority.

 

3.7              Method of Data Collection

 

The Questionnaires for this study thoroughly scrutinized by the supervisor to ensure its clarity and unambiguity as well as relevance to the study.

 

3.8              Method of Data Analysis

 

Data obtained by the researcher will all be treated equally. A purposive sampling technique will be used to obtain the sample for this study to ensure equal representative of discourse.

 

This statistic used in testing the data will be Pearson production movement correlation coefficient (r). The researcher will use correlation coefficient to enable the researcher too draw conclusion and measure the amount of correlation or relationship that exists between two variables using hypothesis.

 

Data was analyzed using frequency tables and percentages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER FOUR

 

DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

4.1              Introduction

 

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Breath-Away Cross River Broadcasting Television Programme, this chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data collected through Questionnaire administered (field work), test of hypotheses and discussion of major findings.

 

A total of 200 Questionnaire were administered to respondents in Ugep headquarters of Yakurr

 

Local Government Area, but only a hundred and thirty-six (136) copies were correctly filled and

 

returned, giving a response rate of 68%.

 

This study answered the following research questions

 

How many children in Yakurr Local Government have access to Breath-Away programme?

How can parents guide their children on viewership of the Breath-Away programme? What impact does Breath-Away have on the social lives of children?

Analysis of Demography Data

 

Table 4.1

 

Distribution of Respondents by Age

 

Question 2: Age?

 

 

FEATURE (Age)

No. of Respondent

Percentage(%)

 

 

 

16-20 years

16

11.76

21-25 years

28

20.60

26-30 years

35

25.73

31-45

16

11.76

46 and above

41

30.15

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

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Table 4.2

 

Distribution of Respondents by Gender

 

Question 3: Gender

 

Sex No. of Respondent Percentage

 

 

 

Male

 

50

36.76

Female

 

86

63.24

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.3

 

Distribution of Respondents by Qualification

 

Question 4: Qualification?

 

 

Qualification

No. of Respondent

Percentage(%)

 

 

 

FLSC

12

8.82

O‟Level

24

17.65

B.sc/HND/OND/Diploma

30

22.10

Undergraduates

12

8.82

Higher degree

48

35.30

Others

10

7.35

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table 4.4

 

Marital Status of Respondents

 

Question 5: Marital Status?

 

Marital Status No. of Respondent Percentage(%)

 

 

 

 

Single

77

56.62

Married

31

22.79

Divorced

9

6.62

Separated

19

13.97

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

This process deals with the analysis of data collected and Table 4.1 above shows a part of the demographic feature of respondents. The table revealed that most of the respondents are of the senior people, while the middle age is few. Out of the four categories, 16-20years accounted for 11.26 percent, 21-25years accounted for 20.60 percent, 26-30 years accounted for 25.73 percent, 31-35years accounted for 11.76 percent, and 36 and above accounted for 30.15 percent of the remaining respondents.

 

Table 4.2 shows that 50 representing 36.76 percent of the population were male while female were 86 representing 63.24 percent of the remaining population.

 

With the respondents‟ qualification,12representing 8.in82percentTableofthem have4.first3 school leaving certificate (FLSC), vel24(SSCE),represe

 

30 representing 22.10 percent of them have first degree, 12 representing 8.82 percent of them are undergraduates, 48 representing 35.30 of them have high degree while the remaining 10 Q2population representing 7.35percent have none of the above qualifications.

 

Table 4.4, shows that most of the respondents 77 or 56.62 percent are single followed by married people representing 31 or 22.79 percent, divorced totaled 9 or 6.62 percent of the

 

 

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respondents, while separated represented 19 or 13.97 percent of the remaining respondents.

 

4.2.            Data analysis and interpretation

 

Interpretation of findings. This analysis is to verify the research formulated by the researcher in chapter one.

 

SECTION B

 

STRUCTURE QUESTONS

 

 

Table 4.5

 

Q1: Every home has a television set in Yakurr Local Government Area

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE5 %

 

RESPONDENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

SA

55

40.44

A

76

55.88

SD

3

2.02

D

2

1.47

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

 

The table above (table 4.6) shows that most of the respondents 131 representing 96.32Percent of the entire population strongly agree that every home in Yakurr has a television set while 5 representing 3.49percent of the remaining disagree to it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

20


 

 

 

Table 4.6:

 

Q2: Every child has access to television and breathe-away programmes

 

 

Responses

No. of Respondent

Percentage(%)

 

 

 

SA

50

36.77

A

80

58.82

SD

4

2.94

D

2

1.47

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

From the above table 4.6, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 130 representing 95.59percent of the total population strongly agree that most children have access to breathe away programmes on CRBC-TV, while 6 representing 4.41percent of the remaining population disagree to it.

 

Table 4.7

 

Q3: Breathe-away programmes is the most popular programme for children in Yakurr

 

 

Responses

No. of Respondent

Percentage (%)

 

 

 

SA

88

64.71

A

40

29,41

SD

2

1.5

D

2

1.5

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

From the above table 4.7, it can be inferred the respondents 128 representing 94.12 percent agree that Breath-Away is the most popular programme for children, while 4 representing 3%

 

21


disagreed to it.

 

 

 

Table 4.8

 

 

 

Q4: Every parent watches Breathe away with their children

 

 

 

Responses

No. of Respondent

Percentage(%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

SA

20

14,70

 

 

A

30

22.06

 

 

SD

30

22.06

 

 

D

56

41.18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

From the above table 4.8, it can be inferred that the respondents 50 representing 36.76percent

 

strongly agree that parents watches Breath-Away programmes with their children, while 86

 

representing 63.24percent of the remaining population disagreed to it.

 

 

 

 

TABLE 4.9

 

Q5: Parents exert the most influence on the chi

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE (%)

 

RESPONDENTS

 

 

 

 

SA

30

22.06

AS

35

18.38

SD

30

22.06

D

61

48.85

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

22


From the above table 4.9, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 65 representing 40.44

 

percent agree that parents exert the most in

 

representing 70.91 percent of the remaining population disagreed to it..

 

 

TABLE 4.10

 

Q 6: Intervention from adults while a child views the programme immediately or afterwards

 

changes the child‟s perception of the program

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE

 

RESPONDENTS

 

 

 

 

SA

46

33.82

A

68

50

SD

10

7.32

D

12

8.82

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

From the above table 4.10, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 132 representing 69,82

 

percent agree that intervention from adults while the child views the programme immediately or

 

afterwards changes the childs perceptions of the programme , while 41 representing 30.16percent

 

of the remaining population disagreed to it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23


Table 4.11

 

Q4: Children tend to mimic the characters in Breathe-away programmes

 

 

Responses

No. of Respondent

Percentage(%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

SA

49

36.03

 

 

A

76

55.88

 

 

SD

5

3.68

 

 

D

6

4.41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

From the above table 4.11, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 125 representing 91.91percent strongly agree that children tend to mimic the characters in Breathe-away programmes, while 11 representing 8.09 percent of the remaining population disagreed to it.

 

 

 

Table 4.12

 

Q8: Breath-Away programmes affect a child‟s academic

 

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE (%)

 

 

RESPONDENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

SA

50

36.76

 

A

32

23.53

 

SD

20

14.71

 

D

34

25

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

 

24


From the above table 4.12 it can be inferred that most of the respondents 50 representing 36.03

 

percent strongly agree that Breath-away can affect a child‟s acade representing 23.53 percent agreed while 34 representing 25 percent of the remaining population

 

disagreed to it, while 20 representing 14.71 percent strongly disagreed to it.

 

 

 

TABLE 4.13

 

Q9: Breath-Away programmes are major cause of children‟sabsurdity in behavior

 

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE(%)

 

 

RESPONDENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

SA

75

55.15

 

A

50

36.76

 

SD

10

7.41

 

D

1

0.74

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

From the above table 4.13 it can be inferred that most of the respondents 75 representing 55.15

 

percent strongly agree that Breath-away programme is the major cau

 

behavior while 50 representing 36.76 percent agreed while 10 representing 7.41 percent of the

 

remaining population disagreed to it, while 1 representing 0.74 percent strongly disagreed to it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25


Table 4.14

 

Q10: Breathe-away programmes have no influence on ch

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE (%)

 

RESPONDENT

 

 

 

 

SA

22

16.18

A

31

22.79

SD

52

38.24.

D

31

22.79

 

 

 

 

 

Total

136

100

 

 

 

 

 

From the above table 4.14 it can be inferred that most of the respondents 22 representing 16.18 percent strongly agree that Breath-away have no influence on children social behavior, while 31 representing 22.79 percent agreed while representing 22.79 percent of the remaining population disagreed to it, while 52 representing 38.24 percent strongly disagreed to it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26


TABLE 4.15

 

Q9: Measures can be taken to protect our kids from the negative influence of television programmes.

 

 

 

RESPONSES

NO OF

PERCENTAGE(%)

 

 

RESPONDENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

SA

50

36.76

 

A

45

33.09

 

SD

20

14.71

 

D

21

15.45

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

From the above table 4.15, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 95 representing 69.85percent agree that measures can be taken to protect our kids from the negative influence of television programmes, while 41 representing 31.16 percent of the remaining population disagreed to it

 

.4.3 Test of Hypothesis

 

 

This section presents the hypotheses testing. In order to scientifically analyze the research findings, a hypothesis by hypotheses of the results were tabulated and analyzed using correlation coefficient (r) statistic.

 

Hypothesis 1

 

H1: Every child has access to Breathe Away television programme

 

 

 

27


H0: Every child hasn‟t access to Breathe. Away televisio

 

 

 

 

 

Items

SA

A

SD

D

 

 

 

 

13

46

68

 

10

12

6

50

80

 

4

2

Responses

X

Y

XY

X2

Y2

 

 

 

 

SA

46

50

1978

1849

2116

 

 

 

 

A

68

80

2448

1296

4624

SD

10

4

80

64

100

D

12

2

108

81

144

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

136

7764

6984

8920

 

 

 

 

Table 4.12: Correlation between adults intervention while and immediately afterwards a child views the programme and the children access to Breath-Away programmes in Cross River state

 

Recall that:

 

r =

 

 

 

Where r= Correlation coefficient

 

28


X                  = Subject scores on the X variables

 

 

Y                  = Subject scores on the Y variables

 

 

n = Population/Sample size

 

 

 

 

 

2 2

Given n= 4, ∑x=136, ∑y=136,=6984,∑xy=7764,=8920∑y ∑x

 

r =

 

 

 

=

 

 

 

=

 

 

 

=

 

 

r = i.3291

 

 

 

Decision Rule: When the calculated value is greater than the table value, we reject the null hyoothesis (Ho).But when the calculated value is less than the table value (i.e,t cal.<t-tab), we accept the null hypothesis.

 

Applying the decision rules to the tested hypothesis above, where the calculated value is greater than the table value (i.e 1.3291>0.878) we reject the null hypothesis this implies there is significant relationship between intervention from adults while a child views the programmes immediately or afterwards change-awayprogammetheandchild‟sthe child‟s access-Awayprogrammetothe. Breath

 

 

 

 

 

 

29


H2-Parents can guide their children on viewership of the Breath-Away television programme. H0-parents can‟t guide their children on viewer

 

Table 4.9: Correlation between breathe-away programmes and children behaviour.

 

Items

SA

A

SD

D

 

 

 

 

1

50

80

4

2

2

55

76

3

2

 

 

 

 

Responses

X

Y

XY

X2

Y2

 

 

 

SA

50

55

2750

2500

3025

A

80

76

6080

6400

5776

SD

4

3

12

16

9

D

2

2

14

4

4

 

 

 

TOTAL

136

136

8856

8920

8814

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recall that:

 

r =

 

 

 

Where r= Correlation coefficient

 

 

 

30


X                  = Subject scores on the X variables

 

 

Y                  = Subject scores on the Y variables

 

 

n

=

Population/Sample size

 

 

Given n=4,

2

2

 

∑x=136,∑y=136,8856∑x=8920∑xy=∑y8814

 

r

=

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

=

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

=

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

=

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

=

0.9945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

r

=

0.9945= Calculated Value

 

 

 

 

Degree of freedom

 

 

 

=  n-1

 

 

 

=  4-1

 

 

 

=  3

 

 

Level of significance = 0.05

 

The Correlation coefficient (r) distribution table of value indicates that the critical value of 0.05 at degree of freedom 3 is 0.878 = tab value.

 

31


 

Decision Rule: When the calculated value is greater than the table value, we reject the null hypothesis (H0). But when the calculated value is less than the table value (i.e, t cal.< t tab), we accept the null hypotheses (H0) and reject the alternative hypotheses (Hi).

 

Applying the decision rule to the tested hypotheses above where the calculated value is greater than the table value (i.e 0.994>0.878), we therefore reject the null hypotheses (H0). This decision therefore implies that there is a significant relationship between breathe-away and children‟s social behaviour

 

4.4 Discussion of Findings

 

In the section, the data collection-Away- from

 

Cross River television programme as related to children social behavioural problems ( a study of

 

Yakurr Local Government).The data -Awaycontained-Cross River television programme fully completed copies of Questionnaire retrieved from respondents would be discussed.Responses to answers on research questions and hypothesis would be discussed.

Research Question 1: To what extent can lives of children be affected negatively or

 

positively by the contents of Breath-Away?

 

The table (table 4.6) shows that most of the respondents 131 representing 96.32Percent of the entire population strongly agree that every home in Yakurr has a television set while 5 representing 3.49percent of the remaining disagree to it.

 

From the table 4.7, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 130 representing 95.59percent of the total population strongly agree that most children have access to breathe away programmes on CRBC-TV, while 6 representing 4.41percent of the remaining population disagree to it.

 

From the above table 4.7, it can be inferred the respondents 128 representing 94.12 percent agree that Breath-Away is the most popular programme for children, while 4 representing 3% disagreed to it..

 

 

 

 

32


Research question 2: How can parents guide their children on viewership of the Breath-

 

Away programme?

 

Tables 8-14 answered research question 2

 

From the above table 4.8, it can be inferred that the respondents 50 representing 36.76percent strongly agree that parents watches Breath-Away programmes with their children, while 86 representing 63.24percent of the remaining population disagreed to it.

 

Table 13 65 representing 40.49% of the population agree that parents exert the most influence

 

on the child‟s social behavior,. while 91 repr

 

Table 14 respondents, representing 88.82% agree that intervention from adults while a child

 

views the programme immediately or afterwar programme.

 

Research question 3: What impact does Breath-Away have on the social lives of children?

 

From the above table 4.11 it can be inferred that most of the respondents 50 representing 36.03

 

percent strongly agree that Breath-away can affect a child‟s acad representing 23.53 percent agreed while 34 representing 25 percent of the remaining population

 

disagreed to it,while 20 representing 14.71 percent strongly disagreed to it.

 

From the table 4.12 it can be inferred that most of the respondents 75 representing 55.15 percent

 

strongly agree that Breath-away programme is the major caus behavior while 50 representing 36.76 percent agreed while 10 representing 7.41 percent of the

 

remaining population disagreed to it,while 1 representing 0.74 percent strongly disagreed to it.

 

From the table 4.13 it can be inferred that most of the respondents 22 representing 16.18 percent strongly agree that Breath-away have no influence on children social behavior, while 31 representing 22.79 percent agreed while representing 22.79 percent of the remaining population disagreed to it, while 52 representing 38.24 percent strongly disagreed to it.

 

From the table 4.14, it can be inferred that most of the respondents 95 representing 69.85percent agree that measures can be taken to protect our kids from the negative influence of television

 

33


programmes, while 41 representing 31.16 percent of the remaining population disagreed to it

 

 

From the foregoing analysis and test of hypotheses postulated in the investigation, it has been learnt that almost every child in Yakurr Local Government Area has access to Breath-Away

 

programmes (CRBCTV) and Breath-Away programme has significant influe social behavior. This may be in line with the earlier assertion in the review of related literature

 

that children learning process is also affected/influenced by what they see and hear.

 

 

The results of the tested hypotheses show that there is a significant relationship between a child‟sbreathaccess-awayprogrammestoand intervention from parents while a child views the programme. It also shows that there is a significant relationship between television

 

programmes and children‟s social behaviour.

 

 

Finally the last hypothesis tested also show that the intervention from parents can change the perception of a breathe-away programme before or after it has been viewed and parents can guide a child on viewership of the Breath-Away programme.

 

The study gathered that breathe-away programme influence children social behaviour and is the major causeinsocialofbehaviorchildren‟s.Thismaybedueto theabsurdityfactchildren tend to mimic the characters in breath-away programme which invariable affect the way they talk, walk, even relates with each other.

 

From the scores of the respondents, it was also gathered that most children have access to television and breathe-away (CRBC TV) programmes. This may be as a result of breath-away (CRBC TV) programme being one of the few television programmes in the area (if not the only one). From the result it can also be inferred that breath-away (CRBC TV) programme ratings on programmes may not be strictly followed by parents, thereby exposing children to breath-away programmes that influence their social behavior, but the intervention of the parents can change the perception of breathe-away programme before or after it has been viewed.

 

However, the study also was unable to ascertain whether breath-away programme exert the most influence on children‟s social behavior-away. Th programme does not affect a children‟s academic perform imagination and it is not surprising that its influence on children academic performance did not

 

 

34


rate highly in their choice.

 

The study however concluded that the time spent watching breath-away programme is evident as

 

there is significant influence of breath-away programme on children‟s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35


CHAPTER 5

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND THE REECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.1.            Introduction

 

This research has successful examined the influence of breathe-away (CRBC TV) on children social behavior, using Yakurr local government area as a case study.

 

Based on the data collected and hypotheses tested, one of the findings of this research is that every child in Yakurr Local Government has access to Breath-Away (CRBC TV) programmes

 

and parents‟can guideof thechildrenBreath-awaytelevisiononprogrammethe. viewers

 

This finding from the tested hypotheses is the result of the influence of breath-away programmes as related to children‟s social be breath-away programmes have little or no effect on the academic performance of a child but can

 

be used to stimulatetion.Also weacan child‟sagreefromthe findingsimaginathatmost children have access to Breath-Away programme on Cross River Broadcasting corporation, television and children tend to mimic the characters in Breathe Away programme.

 

This findings from the second tested hypothesis is the result that the intervention from adults can change the perception of the children immediately of afterwards the programme.

 

5.2                Conclusion

 

Based on the findings of this research, the researcher concluded that most children in Yakurr Local Government have access to Breath-Away television programme and parents should guide their children on the viewership of this programme. We also learnt from the research study that the child‟s social-awaybehavior(CRBCTV)programmeis. Andinfluencethe more exposed to the programmes without the parental guidance, the more the influence it would have on children. Hence if the producer of the breath-away programmes clearly state

 

programme/ viewers‟ rating ofandthese programmeparentalwillbe guid reduced.

 

 

 

The result of this research should therefore be invaluable to television stations, media practitioners and broadcast firm wishing to influence the lives of its viewers positively at all

 

 

36


levels.

 

5.3              Recommendations

 

The following recommendations are made following this study:

 

1)      Broadcasting and media houses should take into consideration , its targeted audience before airing certain programmes

 

2)      Viewers‟ rating should be clearly-awayprogrammesindicate and parental guidance advised.

 

 

3)      Parents should discipline and sensor the type of programmes their children are allowed to watch from television stations and generally.

 

Finally, it is pertinent to state that breath-away programme is just a part of the many factors that can influence the social behaviour of children; other factors influence them as well. The role of parents in shaping the social lives of children is pivotal especially as technology constantly evolve over time.

 

5.4              Recommendations for further studies

 

Having critically analyzed the impact of Breath-Away as related to children social behavioral in problems in Nigeria. The researcher hereby makes for the following topics for further study thus

 

1.      The attitude of parents towards watching Breath-Away programmes, Cross River broadcasting corporation.

 

2.      The role of the government in indecent local progammes in Nigeria.

 

3.      The negative impact of the social media (facebook) in Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37


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39


APPENDIX A

 

 

 

Department of Mass Communication,

 

Faculty of Management and Social Science,

 

Caritas University, Enugu

 

Enugu State.

 

9th April, 2013

 

 

Dear Respondent,

 

I am a final year student of the department of Mass Communication, Caritas

 

University, Enugu state. I am currentl

 

of Breath-away programmes (CRBC-TV) on children as related to social

 

behavioral problems in Nigeria- A case study of Yakurrto LG

 

this questionnaire will help me do analysis for academics.

 

I will ensure that every information and facts supplied by you shall be treated with

 

utmost confidentiality and will be used solely for the purpose of this research

 

work.

 

Your kind co-operation will be appreciated.

 

Yours Faithfully

 

 

 

 

 

Lois Etemfa Oju

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40


 

 

APPENDIX B

 

 

PERSONAL DATA

Please you are required to tick ( ) the right option in the box or write down the answer on the

space provided

 

 

1.

Name

2.

Age: Minor3-10(

)11-15 ( )16-20yrs ( )21-25yrs ( )26-30yrs ( )31 and above ( )

3.

Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )

 

4.

Qualification: FLSC ( ) WAEC ( ) GCE ( ) Undergraduate ( ) OND ( )

5.

HND (

) BSc (

) PGD and above ( ) other

6.

Marital status: single ( ) Married (

) Divorced ( ) Separated ( )

 

 

 

 

SECTION B

1.

Which of these stations do you watch most? CRBC ( ) Aljazeera ( ) Sentanta Africa ( )

 

channels TV (

) Silverbird TV ( ) NTA (

2.

Have you ever watched breath-away programmes CRBC TV? YES ( ) No ( )

3.

Did you like it? YES( ) No ( )

 

4.

What prompted you to watch it? Advert ( ) Friends ( ) Informative ( ) Action packed ( )

 

Educative (

) others specify

 

  1. Where you live do you have access to TV stations? YES ( ) NO ( )

 

  1. If YES which stations? NTA ( ) CRBC TV Others specify .

 

  1. Do- children love watching breath away programmes on CRBC TV? YES ( ) NO ( )

 

  1. To what extent can lives of children be affected negatively or positively by the contents of Breath Away?

 

  1. If negative do you agree that intervention from adults while a child views the programme immediately or afterwards changes the child‟sperception of the programme?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

41


SECTION C

 

(STRUCTURED QUESTION)

 

Please tick ( ) under the response you feel is alright for you.

 

KEY: SA=STRONGLY AGREE, A=AGREE, SD=STRONGLY DISAGREE, D=DISAGREE

 

S/N

QUESTIONS

SA

A

SD

D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Every home has a television set in Yakurr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Every child has access to Television and breath-away

 

 

 

 

 

programmes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

Breath-Away is the most popular programme for children in