Title page ..i
Approval page ..ii
List of tables and figures ..v
Table of Content ix
1.0 Introduction .. 1
Literature review .. .. 4
2.0. The heart ..4
2.0.1. Cardiovascular disorder .. .
2.0.2 Diseases Associated with Cardiovascular ..
2.0.3 Some of the risk factor for cardiovascular disorder..9 .
2.1. Causes of cardiovascular..10 disorde
2.1.1 Symptoms of cardiovascular..14 diso
2.2 Pharmacological treatment 16of card
2.3 Medicinal plant 17
2.4.1 Taxonomy of Desmodium Velutium .19
2.4.2 Uses of Desmodium Velutium ...20
2.5 Lipoprotein Metabolism in 21the hea
2.5.1 Classifications ...oflipoprotein22
2.5.2 Danger of high cholesterol .24 leve
2.6 Phytochemicals analysis . 25
2.7 Heart Marker ..26
2.7.1 Types of cardiac Marker 26
3.0Material andMethods .. 31 3.1Identification and extraction 33 of p 3.2Hot continuous percolation .method34 3.3Phytochemical analysis 34 3.4 Experimental Animal model...... 37
3.5Collection of blood sample . 38 3.6Enzyme profile Analysis
4.0 Results 43
4.1Quantitative Analysis .. 43
4.3Heart Marker Enzymes of Rats44 Fed W
References . 50
This study evaluates the cardio protactive effect of N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem on albino wister rat. Rats used in this study were grouped into four and each group was fed differentely. Rats in group one, three, and four wre fed with the aid of a syringe without needle with
6ml of the lipoprotein food mixture co a day for seven days. Rats on group t and water for seven days; rats in group three was later administered orally
2ml of dissolved vasoprin drug once in a day for 3 days. Rats in group four were also administered orally 0.5ml of the liquid drug extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem once a day for 3 days. During these three (3) days, the rats
were given growers mash andtherate waterfed. A with the cows brain showed a signif marker enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), Aspartatatranseaminase (AST), Alaninetransminase (ALT), and lactatedehydrogenase. This study shows that N-hexane extract of
Desmodium Velutinum stem posses cardio protective effect on albino wister rats than the known drug (vasoprin) if only one can increase the dosage of the extract for a period of time.
The heart is a hollow muscular, cone-shaped organ, lying between the
lungs in a block of tissue called the mediastinum (Khader, 2004). The heart begins beating some few weeks following conception and beats throughout life (Khader, 2004). It is also the strongest muscle in the human body and functions to maintain a constant circulation of blood throughout the body, it also acts as a pump and its action is composed of a series of events known as the cardiac cycle. The heart is composes of three layers of tissue which are; the pericardium, the myocardium and the Endocardium. The heart acts as a pump which drives blood into and through the arteries, but the right and the left side of the heart functions separately from one another some of the diseases associated with the cardiovascular system includes coronary heart diseases (CHD) which is the most common of heart diseases and it occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart narrow or harden from the build-up of plaque (Gina, 1996.),Ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease( CeVD),peripheral vascular disease, Heart Failure etc and some of the pharmacological treatment includes Angiotesin commonly prescribes includes Benazepril, Captopril, Moexipril, Beta Blockers which includes, Acebutolol, Betaxolol,etc.
The heart marker enzymes includes creatine kinasse(CK-MB)which is the enzyme used as the definitive serum marker for the diagnosis or exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (Andreas,2009).
Troponin 1 Rapid test which is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of cardiac Troponin 1(CTn1)and its complex in human serum or plasma at the level equal or higher than 1ng/ml. Myoglobin which is also designed for qualitative determination of myoglobin in human whole blood serum or plasma as an aid in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) and myoglobin is also a low molecular weight cytoplasm protein which is released into the blood stream when muscle cells are damaged and this protein is released into the blood stream more rapidly than any other myocardial marker and elevated levels can be detected as early as one (1) hour after the onset of AMI(Penttila,2002). Demodium velutinum has been suggested to have some therapeutic effect in the treatment of cardiovascular disorder and in the reducing of high cholesterol content in the body.
Demodium Velutinum is one of the few shrubs species that has been identified as a well adapted to acid tropical soil and a good nutritive value(Schultze-Kraft, 2002).Every culture has relied on the variety of natural medicines found in healing plants for the therapeutic properties
(Armstrong,2004).Researchers find that food and their individual constituents perform similar fashion to modern drugs and sometimes better without the dreaded side effect. The leaves and young stems are rich in crude protein and mineral elements and can provide higher levels of some nutrient (Bakker, 1994). Natural plants have been valuable sources of mineral agent with proven potential of treating infectious diseases and with lesser side effects compared to the synthetic drug agents(Guyton, 2002).Hence potentially useful drugs can often be recognized from their relative importance and uses in folk medicine. Extract of Desmodium velutinum stem are used traditionally in some diseases condition particularly headache and may be a source of a pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches and pain(Anowi,2012). This work aimed at investigating any hypocholesterolemic activity in the N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem.
2.0 The Heart
The human heart is the size of fist. However, it works relentlessly from before birth to death. The heart being beating by 21 to 28 days after conception and beats throughout life. It is also the strongest muscle in the human ( Anaya 1996).The average heart beats about 100,000 times over a seventy year lifetime. With each beat, the heart pumps blood through the blood vessels or arteries to all parts of the body. It beats approximately 70 to 80 times a minute; this rate can double during exercise or at time of emotion. General structure of the heart
The heart is composed of the three layers of tissues
This is the outer part that covers the heart and consist of two layers or sacs- the outer layer or fibrous pericardium is securely attached to the diaphragm, the outer coat of the great vessels and the posterior surface of the sternum and therefore maintains the heart in its position. Its fibrous nature prevents over distension of the heart. The inner layer the serous pericardium consist of two layers the outer or parietal layer lines the outer fibrous sac and the inner or visceral layer covers the heart muscle.
The serous membrane secrets serous fluid into the space between the visceral and parental layers that allows smooth movement between the layers, when the heart beats.
This is the middle layer of the heart and is compose of specialized muscle tissue called the cardiac muscle, on which the circulation of blood depends. It varies in thickness, being thickest in the left ventricle, thinner in the right ventricle and thinnest in the artrium.
The inner linging of the heart is thin, smooth, glistening membrane consisting of flattened epithelial cells which is continuous with the valves and with the lining of the blood vessels.
Interior of the heart.
The heart is divided into a right and left side by a muscular partition called as the septum. The two sides of the heart have no communication with each other. Each side is sub-divided into an upper and lower chamber, the upper chamber on each side is called the auricle or atrium and is the receiving chamber on each side is called the ventricle and is the discharging chamber from which the blood is driven into the arteries.
Each atrium communicates with the ventricles below it on the same side of the heart through an opening, guarded by a valve called artrio-velntricular valve. The valve separating the right atrium from the right ventricle is known as the right artrio-ventricular valve (tricuspid valve) and is made up of three flaps or cusps. Similarly, the valve separating the left atrium from the left ventricle is called left artrio-ventriclar valve (mitral Valve) and is composed of two flaps of cusps.
Functions of the heart
The main function of heart is to maintain a constant circulation of blood throughout the body and also to act as a pump and its action is to compose of a series of events known as the cardiac cycle.
Cardiovascular system of the heart
The blood from the heart travels from the left side of the heart and is rich in oxygen. It travels via arteries of ever-decreasing size till it reaches the narrowest of arteries called capillaries in all the organs and parts of the body and having delivered its oxygen and nutrients and having collected waste products, blood is brought back to the right side of the heart through a system of progressively enlarging vein called circulating system or cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular system literally means cardio or heart
and vascular or a system or network of blood vessels (American heart Association, 2009).
2.0.1 Cardiovascular Disorder
Cardiovascular disorders (CVD);this includes dysfunctional conditions of the heart, arteries ,and veins that supply oxygen to vital life-sustaining areas
of the brain, the heart itself, and other vital organs. if oxygen doesn the tissue or organ will die. Ischemic heart disorder is the technical term for
obstruction of blood flow to the heart. In general this results because excess fat or plaque deposits are narrowing the veins that supply oxygenated blood to the heart(Matyal,2008). Excess buildup of fat or plaque is respectively term arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis.
2.0.2 Diseases associated with cardiovascular system are.
Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD) is the most common form of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart narrow or harden from the build-up of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol and other substances founding the blood(WU,2002). This plaque build-up is known as atherosclerosis and the site of the plaque determines the type of heart disorder such as.
Coronary artery disease; this is the build-up of plaque in the arteries supplying blood to the heart.
Peripheral artery disease, This is the build- up of plaque in the arteries supplying blood to the arms and legs.
Carotid artery diseases; This is the build-up of plaque in the arteries that supply blood to the brain.
Coronary heart disease can be caused due to risk factors like high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, tobacco use, obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, diabetes advancing age (Nissen, 2005).
Ischemic heart disease. It refers to problems with the circulation of blood to the heart muscle (Armstrong, 2004). A partial blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries can result in a lack of enough oxygenated blood(ischemia)and the symptoms includes;
Angina (chest pain) and dyspnea(shortness of breath)
A complete blockage of an artery causes necrosis (damage to the tissues) or a myocardial infarction commonly known as heart attack.
Peripheral vascular disease. It affects the circulation primarily in the legs, patients with this diseases typically complain of pain in their calves especially when walking. Peripheral heart diseases occur when fat and
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