This study appraises the efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency in tackling the issues bordering on the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Without doubt, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the problems that have continued to threaten international security. The realist assumption that peace is guaranteed by arming one’s self to the teeth and always being ready for war has somewhat made the quest for acquisition of nuclear weapons appear lofty. From the time the international community realized that nuclear weapons have potentially dangerous implications for the safety of mankind, a lot of measures has been put in place to control and regulate the possession of these weapons. These among other measures included the Non Proliferation Treaty which inter alia sought to safeguard regions and continents against the threats of nuclear weapons. In order to give institutional power to the fight against the proliferation of nuclear weapons, the International Atomic Energy Agency was established in 1957. Over the years, the International Atomic Energy Agency under the mandate of the united nations security council has developed a structure that has been considerably efficient in the vital role of controlling and regulating the nuclear energy/weapons regime; although, not without its challenges. An assessment of the role of the International Atomic Energy agency in the regulation of the nuclear weapons proliferation forms the crux of this study.