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The susceptibilities of Salmonella typhi and other pathogens to antibiotics and hot aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated using agar diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. Salmonella typhi was sensitive to ampicillin, cetriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin of ofloxacin and perfloxacin. Nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, clarithomycin and augumentin are resistant. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to 50%, 70% and 60% of the antibiotics respectively.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all antibiotics. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (0.6g in 6ml of sterile distilled water) was active against S. typhi at concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml (inhibitions zone diameter IZDs = 23mm, 20mm and 16mm respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml of the extract with IZDs of 29mm, 18mm, 17mm and 14mm respectively. Klebsiella spp was susceptible to concentrations of 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml of the extract with IZDs of 15mm and 10mm respectively. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to all the concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract. It is therefore imperative to note that the use of medicinal plants is recommended to the Government and Industry.



Bank: GTBank
Account Name: Prince Orafu
Account Number: 0109980866

Bank: Diamond Bank
Account Name: Prince Orafu
Account Number: 0065070861

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