The proliferation of nuclear energy is a phenomenon of the 21st and apparently, the most pernicious issue in modern international relations. As nations jostle for atomic devices, the international system is threatened by the fear of nuclear holocaust. Therefore, the need to underscore the relationship between the “nuclear haves” and the “nuclear have nots”, becomes imperative. Moreover, the nuclear proliferation saga is overblown and the general public is ill-informed of the intricacies of nuclear politics as well as the games nations play in this regard. This study is poised to unravel and highlight these issues in consonance with the realities of the international system in the 21st century and draw attention to the implications of this phenomenon to the Third World countries of the world.